huml is the prefix that will be associated with the Human Markup Language Specifications. It indicates the first Human Markup Language schema, and it forms the basis for succeeding schemata. Human Markup Language Schema, Version 1.0 Copyright 2006The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards. All rights reserved. This schema is the primary base schema from which subsequent schemata and specific HumanML applications are developed. Note this is dthe first significant revision of the first committee specification. OASIS takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effort to identify any such rights. 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This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and OASIS DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. OASIS has been notified of intellectual property rights claimed in regard to some or all of the contents of this specification. For more information consult the online list of claimed rights. NONE Human Identifier Attributes This huml term humlIdentifierAtts is used for identifier uniqueness and huml element names. It is used to indicate use in indentifying characteristics. NONE Human Temporal Attributes This huml term humlTemporalAtts is used for identifier uniqueness and huml element names. It is used to indicate specified periods of time from one date and/or time to a later date and/or time. NONE Human Communication Attributes This huml term humlCommAtts is used for identifier uniqueness and huml element names. It is used to indicate use in communication. NONE Age The huml attributeGroup age is a set of attributes for documenting or determining the age of a human. NONE Human Physiological Descriptors The Huml term humanPhysicalDescriptors is a set of attributes for a physical characteristic description of a human. For legal purposes we may only state the general intent of this attributeGroup while relying upon the individual systems referenced to be responsible for these attributes within those systems. A Person's body size, shape, and other characteristics stand in contrast to their social identity descriptors, such as roles. Among physical descriptors of use or cultural significance are those bodily measurements commonly used in forensic descriptions of identity: gender, height, weight, eye color, and age at a particular time NOTE: In order to accommodate the various differences in language and culture as well as the differences in legal, financial and medical systems and legal jurisdictions, it is necessary to specify these parameters using attribute type = QName mechanism and use the specific systems thus cited by namespace and invoked. NOTE: specific systems referenced may include asubsequent Huml secondary schema or multiple schemata. NONE Human Name The Huml term humanbName is a set of attributes for the name of a human. For legal purposes we may only state the general intent of this attributeGroup while relying upon the individual systems referenced to be responsible for these attributes within those systems. A Person's name is determined by a number of differing cultural, social and legal systems and represent an individual human's social identity. NOTE: In order to accommodate the various differences in language and culture as well as the differences in legal, financial and medical systems and legal jurisdictions, it is necessary to specify these parameters using attribute type = QName mechanism and use the specific systems thus cited by namespace and invoked. NOTE: specific systems referenced may include namespaces specifically imported in this schema, and may also repeat the string value of the huimlIdentiferAtts. NONE Human Body Part This is a "simple" body part, such as an arm, a forearm, or an eybrow. Used in haptics, kinesics, artifacts, etc. Cultural and individual variants may obtain. Variants may be "marked" compared to usual inventories of parts (unmarked). Further, conventons in one or another cultural matrix may attribute character properties to bodyParts (e.g., "a strong chin", "a cute nose", "an ugly mug"). Scientific usages will also apply NONE Intensity This is a positive number between 0 and 1 used to set a relative scale of the intensity or strength of some behavior, such as a handshake or a state or condition such as an emotion. NONE Dimension A measurable parameter.(Equivalent to CIDOC CRM cidoc_v4.2.rdfs: rdfs:Class rdf:ID="E54.Dimension) Some dimensions are concrete, like those in hard sciences, though even hard science parameters may be more -- or less -- primal. To wit: time, space, momentum/force, surface tension could be said to be "more primal"; genetic default for a species during an era, predicted weather, economic trend could be said to be successively less primal. They involve more inference than direct measurement. Conceptual dimensions are very important in human systems. (See other huml terms, such as Chronemic and Intent.) Measuring them may require no little artifice, inference, and/or speculation. Speculative declaration of dimensions is quite common in human discourse and will need to be tagged using expansion schemas. The schemas, like other things in our naturally time-bound world, may be expected to change from time to time. NONE Measurement Unit Used to create measurement values. Used to scale MeasurementValues fjor Dimension. Units may be Discrete class designations (e.g., blood types A, B, AB, and O), Ordered class designators (e.g., the procession of calendar days), and interrupted and non-interrupted Continua (e.g., molecular bond lengths, chroma for light-dark vs. colors which apply only in a certain frequency range of light). This complexType is used to establish the use of a recognized measurement system. Systems of measurement vary by unit, name (for example English units vs metric units) and measurement type. For example, for radius used to determine proximity some unit of distance is needed. We anticipate a corresponding RDF Schema to act as a facility for connecting a resource reference to an application that wishes to use this and the subsequent huml schema. We may decide to include elements from such reference schemata or to import the namespaces of such measurement system standards. NONE Measurement Value Result in measurement units of measuring along a dimension at some time(s) and place(s): single-valued or multiple-valued when viewed in terms of points, but may also be viewed in terms of curved lines, spaces, or trajectories. Abstract mathematics provides ample models from which tags may well be adopted as appropriate (e.g., array) For instance, the intensity value associated with huml Haptic type descriptors might be expanded in one schema to an integer between 0 and 9, with some measurementTechnique such as self-reports. Another expansion schema might expand the same thing in the same range as a decimal derived from instrumental measurement of effects of the event on cells in parties to the touching -- including observers, with accompanying estimation of degree of error so that the measurementValue is a compound descriptor. NONE TimePeriod (Related to but not Equivalent to CIDOC CRM cidoc_v4.2.rdfs: rdfs:Class rdf:ID="E52.Time-Span) cf. HumlTemporalAtts A designated time period is a span of time, with or without specific endpoints. Cultural designators may apply in one or another expansion. For example, some application domains call for descriptions of time in seconds or light years, while others call for eras such as The Iron Age, or during the heyday of the Impressionists, or even 'Long, long ago.... NONE Environment (Related to but not Equivalent to CIDOC CRM cidoc_v4.2.rdfs: rdfs:Class rdf:ID="E53.Place) cf. Address cf. GeoLocator cf. TimePeriod cf. Culture cf. Semiosis Environment bridges the Huml-specific concepts of Address and GeoLocator as well as the CIDOC CRM Concept of Entity:Place to provide greater contextual information. Where CIDOC Place remains somewhat independent of temporal extents, Environment provides for temporal cultural-semiotic context by allowing incorporation of aspects of TimePeriod e.g. circa 1940s Hollywood, or late 1960s counter-culture as well as Ptolomaic Alexandria or Ontolog-Forum Discussion List. NONE Locator (Related to but not Equivalent to CIDOC CRM cidoc_v4.2rdfs:Class rdf:ID="E46.Section_Definition) The Huml term Locator serves to reference locational positions relative to an object or the conceptual space of an object, i.e. the space around an object, e.g. left and right, or inner and outer; the orientation of the object in a space that includes gravity, e.g. up and down or upper and lower; in specifically human physio/psycho-logical terms, i.e. back and front or facing. Canonical cases in point that might be developed as specific XML enumerations in Huml secondary schemata could be: those small sets of position adverbs realized in English in terms the likes of on, upon, in, within, alongside; directionals such as toward, from and to; some usages pertaining to the inlcusive of; and, qualifiers indicating relative temporal positions, e.g. erstwhile, or contextual ranking, e.g. pre-eminent or penultimate. NONE Body Location The huml term BodyLocation is used for a location on a body part. Co-ordinates with descriptions of haptics, artifacts, and other huml terms. Medical and forensic data may specify internal and external locationOnBody of, for example, scars NONE Human Communication Channel A Human Communication Channel is a specialized body part or part(s) serving as sensor (faculty, sensing device). Such a sensor or faculty is instrumental in transmitting and/or receiving Signals comprising communications. Channels differ in what kinds and ranges of energy they can process. For example, ears process vapor compression waves within certain ranges of atmosphere and compression, depending on species. (For instance, human ears, unaided, cannot hear as high as bats', but they can emit as well as receive sound.) :NOTE: Placeholder needs secondary schema to denominate Channel sequences and compounds that may comprise sensors NONE Human An entity which asserts that it is a human. NONE Address Type Address refers to an address in a named address system, such as street, city, state, etc. Note that this needs to be code-based, that is, adaptable to different naming conventions of international locales. For this purpose we have imported the Extensible Address Language from the OASIS Customer Information Quality Technical Committee under review as an OASIS standard and the PostalAddress Standard XML Schema from the Human Resources Consortium (HR-XML). NONE Human Personality Type NONE Persona Projected interaction style of a Semiote during a communication event (Semiosis). Examples: Within a given cultural context, one may intend to portray oneself to one's partners in Semiosis as genial boss, strict parent, pitiful, hunk, or what have you. NOTE: Persona may be characterized as a Semiotic Event in a specific TimePeriod. Comparisons and extension: When consistent Persona projections come to typify an individual across many situations as far as he sees, they can be seen to constitute an individual's Personality. For example, a "go-getter" (according to self-report) is joften termed by practitioners to be a "Type A Personality". Folk classifications are worth accumulating in expansion schemas, whether or not they correspond to theoreticals.jTherefore Persona allows a wider spectrum of possible descriptions. Social roles and characterizations in dramas and other descriptions of individuals may also be appropriate ways of extending this term. NONE Abstract Human Organization A HumanGroup attains the status of a Community when it exhibits shared belief and activity. Communication among the individual Humans comprising the HumanGroup is typical. Individuals may take on different roles in organized shared activity. Commonality of purpose may underlie the belief and activity. Defining belief/activity extend to verbal and nonverbal communication, joint creation/use of some artifact, and activity complexes such as study, worship, business, sports, and the like. Organized belief/activity for a particular HumanGroup's status as Community is to be specified in a huml sub-schema. Examples of Abstract Human Organizations: University, tribal council, business partnership, nuclear and extended family. Institutions are features of Cultures (see Culture). NONE Human Culture HumanCulture is characterized by a cluster of characteristics of a Community. Examples of cultural characteristics include family structure, age-grading, child-rearing practices, dress and mores. Cultural characteristics may persist beyond the lifetime of individual proponents of the culture (members of the community). The characteristics may evolve. (Example: script and language variants.) Side-effects of proponent belief and activity may be vested in artifacts that are at some time within the scope of the proponents. Artifacts may range from the simple physical to subtle long-term effect; for instance, cultural artifacts may be pottery sherds; wires, poles, and switches of a telephone network; calendar, marriage customs; species' genetic makeup; climate and vegetation changes.) Communication, foundational in many cultural processes, is context-dependent. The process of communication itself is a matter of semiosis, entailing exchanges of symbolic signals among agents. (See huml tags Semiote, Semiosis and Semiotic Communication Mode, huml HumanSymbol and huml HumanSignal, which can be used in descriptions of semiotic systems.) NONE Human Belief A human Belief adds conviction that a concept or related concepts forming a statement or assertion is acceptable or true. Referents for the assertion may be physico-chemical, allowing verification of truth -- or they may not. The belief holder may ignore verified truth in holding a belief. All referents, even vague ones, are always cognitive constructs or concepts. Since the referent of a cognitive construct or concept may be another concept, very complex systems of Beliefs may be built up (Belief systems). Humans and humanGroups may promulgate both Beliefs and Belief systems. Those may come to characterize Communities and Cultures. Examples: Person P believes his own hypothesis that the sound heard from the phone he listened to yesterday was that of Person B speaking to tell P some thing TH. (A relatively simple Belief.) Person Q believes whatever is written in a certain book is true. (Depending on the book's size and coherence, this could be one or more Belief systems. Verification may or may not be applied to part or all of the book's assertions.) Comprehension of a Belief or Belief system may also obtain in any given instance. ;) Depending on the particular logic system being applied to relate the component Concepts, Belief may be extended to allow for degrees-of-truth, possibility, probability, change with time, and other meta-properties of assertions. Cross-cultural usage demands considerable development of content details and processes pertaining to Belief. NONE Semiotic Communication Mode Semiosis is a meaningful exchange of signs, signals and symbols among cognitive agents. cf.Culture NOTE: Semiosis models human communication processes. It is the model upon which HumanML is based. Cultural context, shared and not shared, is a determinant. It is expected to be further enumerated by semiotic types and extended in the Secondary Base Schema and subsequent huml schemata. NONE Semiote, Cognitive Agent A Semiote is a communicating cognitive agent. A cognitive agent may have distinguishable internal parts and states. Therefore communication with oneself is the base case, where sender and receiver overlap. Self-communication (self-awareness, reflexion capacity) is instrumental in assessing whether one has sent intended signals, in modeling their effectiveness in conveying concepts to receivers, and in developing subsequent conceptualizations and their signals. Context, besides affecting signal transmission, enters into communications in that what is shared by parties to the communication need not be made explicit in the message. Thus both physical and conceptual referents in parties' environs and conceptual universes comprise context relevant to semiosis. Once perceived and interpreted, the communication content or message is a matter of related Concepts that may constitute assertions about the Semiote's world and that of the sending Semiote partner. Whether they match the intended message is moot. Commonalities may make for easier matched interpretations NONE Human Sign A simple signal connected to one interpretation in Semiosis. This term is used by some semioticians in contrast to symbol as defined here much in the way behavioral psychologists contrast reflex and the more general term response. However, in a broader comparative-culture context, signs are seen to generally be culturally conditioned. Therefore use of this term is deprecated in favor of the more culturally specific Symbol. NONE Human Signal A signal is energy whose shape can potentially be perceived by a party to a communication (see Semiote), and interpreted as meaningful. A signal has physical reality as well as structure. It constitutes a perceptible change in an environmental factor that can be used to transfer meaning. The basic function of such signals is to provide the change of a single environmental factor to attract attention and to transfer meaning. The vocalization of language is a clear example A Signal's meaning may be very simple (e.g., "Pay attention!") or very complex (such as this document). Signal structures may similarly be simple or couched within elaborate symbol systems such as natural languages, musical idioms, or bits on a computer storage medium. Extensions: This term could serve as base for a vocabulary of descriptors characterizing signal shapes and properties of messages themselves. . NONE Human Symbol Any signal or internal reflex (device) with which an abstraction can be expressed. May include written and spoken language tokens (phonetic including prosody) and visual and tactile structures. May be objects. May be processual, taking time. May be culturally specific, part of a system of symbols. Often used as a means to communicate culturally conditioned suppositions. HumanSymbols may (and often do) appear in clusters and depend upon one another and on context for meaning and referential value to the intepreting cognitive agent/Semiote NONE Human Time Factors cf. TimePeriod Chronemic is a tag used for time descriptions. Perception and hence description of time can vary greatly from individual to individual and culture to culture. Social implicata include perceived/described punctuality, willingness to wait, and rate of interaction (e.g., turn-taking periods). A pair of attributes of Chronemic that may be useful are: Monochronic, meaning one thing at a time in sequence. Polychronic, meaning several things at once (co-occurrent; [partly] simultaneous). Among descriptions of time are "scientific" or "objective" measures, which carry with them assumptions not always the same as those in other social contexts, such as unique, continuous, uniform monotonicity with or without quantization NONE Haptic: Human Touching Behaviors Haptics refers to touching behaviors, which may be semiotic (have symbolic content in one or another system). Some touching behaviors may be regarded as gestures and are thus linguistic, whether verbal or not. Parties to haptic behavior may be direct participants (those touching) and indirect participants (observers). Parameters include region(s) of contact, and forcefulness as well as duration and repetition. For example, spanking and pats on the back share repetitive slaps from an actor to a recipient (patient, to use case grammar); but the forcefulness of the hand contact and the contact areas on the recipient characteristically differ. Concomitant Intent (q.v.) may also differ substantially from one haptic act to another. Some haptic events are accidental. Customary haptic gestures and acceptabiity to participants is culturally and individually conditioned; like all behaviors, the haptic varies with a cognitive agent's momentary biological state (sensitivity, strength) and with proximity of participants. (Thus for example, manner and meaning of kissing may vary greatly.) Among theories of the haptic is one that illustrates possible sub-schema typing, proposing classification of haptic events as functional/professional, social/polite, friendship/warmth, love/intimace, or sexual arousal. Physical therapy might be classified as functional/professional, for example, and more or less forceful, but not necessarily highly symbolic communication. NONE Kinesic: Human Body Movement Kinesics, body movement bearing meaning, may portray moods, emotions, intent to interact, and emphasis in verbal and non-verbal communication. Kinesics includes facial gesture. Manner of movement may also be meaningful (e.g., a stiff nod). Exapansion schemata might denominate culture-specific sets of significant body movements. An obvious case in point is ASL, American Sign Language, which has a kinesic basis. NONE Proxemic: Human Space/Time Nearness Relationships Descriptions of Proxemic factors in communication may address spatial placements of protagonists (and their relative body part positions) relative to each other and to their environs. Physical distance or nearness maintained/changed between individuals influences meaning and perceived intent of Signals and as Signals via perceptibility of odor, body heat, angles of visibility, shadows, etc. Thus proximity can serve as signal. Secondary schemas might, for one thing, expand to terms for specifying concrete environs: These would be tags for describing dimensions and space-delimiting features like walls, rivers; for noting movability within said space like furniture, tents, door positions, smaller objects related to the cidoc crm entity Place. Additionally, terms for culturally and individually conditioned customary social distance may be appropriate expansions for the Proxemic. Proxemic factors in communication indicate both spatial and temporal information. cf. TimePeriod NONE Human Artifact (Related to but not Equivalent to cidoc_v4.2: rdfs:Class rdf:ID="E24.Physical_Man-Made_Thing) A trace object, usually human made, and/or assigned human meaning (i.e., acting as a sign or symbol). For example, clothing, jewery, pictures, and even buildings, and food are physical artifacts often used to communicate information about oneself (Human/humanGroup). They might, for instance, symbolize one's interests, hobbies, status, role, task, or lifestyle. They may serve to do so even when their user is not present. They often form part of the context of being, including communication or semiosis. Usages of "artifact" as technical term in anthropology and archaeology must be supported by the huml definition. Artifacts may be interpreted when reconstructing culture, person, and activity patterns. In some usages less physical artifacts (e.g., music and language) may be included. The term "evidence" in forensics is perhaps comparable in some respects. NONE Human Cognitive Concept Concepts are cognitive constructs. Some are doubtless expressions of biological evolution in humans, eg. normal human infant response at birth to faces or newborns' mimicry of systematically apposed vowels -- some consider these "reflexes" akin to involuntary muscle responses. However, it is indisputable that such inbuilt biological responses together with the environmental factors in which the composite environment-reponse occurs forms the basis for an individual biological human's key conceptualizations about the world. Building of enormous structured inventories of related concepts is normal during a human's lifetime. Multiple concept systems is also the norm. (For example, nearly all individuals use multiple language varieties.) Concepts may have geotemporally distributed reflexes (Artifacts) in the physiological system. This term provides a base for semantics. Concepts may be considered abstractions. NONE Human Emotion Though oft available to self-introspection, emotions have traditionally been considered "non-logical" or "primitive" non-mental "forces" in decision-making. Emotions certainly have physiological correlates internal to a person (or animal). Behavioral correlates are also sometimes observable (e.g., through muscle tension, tears, and pupillary size). Expressed emotions may be less transient than an atomic Thought. Emotions enter into "social courtesy" judgements, reaction time, and basic "fight or flight" reactions. They are therefore very important in Human Communication. Emotions may vary greatly in strength. Many emotions may co-occur in one individual at different strengths. Therefore huml Emotion carries an intensity rating. NONE Human Intent Intent is the state of mind and emotion, characterized by purpose and volition, with which a human acts or prepares to act An example of Intent is the planning of a presentation. It needs to be noted that the formation of intent and what outward evidence can be construed to demonstrate intent is a critical legal concept throughout human civilization past and present, and will, therefore, require great care in establishing correlative relationships with legal jurisprudential standards. This complexType is a key factor underlying communication. Yet recognized descriptors of Intent vary notably with cultural group. Development of Intent description is therefore expected to be fruitful. NONE Human Thought Process The physiologial process of mentation. This factor is intended to include not only coherent awareness processes and communication processes, but also states. States, besides wakefulness, may for some applications need to extend to less usual brain activity conditions of short or long duration such as sleep, coma, autism, amnesia, drugged states. This term provides a base for expansion of psychological process models NONE