Extensible Resource Descriptor (XRD) Version 1.0

Working Draft 03, 04 August 2009

Document identifier:
xrd-1.0-wd-03 (XML, HTML, PDF)
Persistent version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/xri/xrd/v1.0/xrd-1.0.html
Current version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/xri/xrd/v1.0/WD03/xrd-1.0-wd03.html
Previous version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/xri/xrd/v1.0/WD02/xrd-1.0-wd02.html
Technical committee:
OASIS eXtensible Resource Identifier (XRI) TC
Peter Davis, NeuStar Inc.
Drummond Reed, Cordance
Eran Hammer-Lahav, Yahoo!
Will Norris, Internet2
Declared XML Namespace:
  • http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0


This document defines XRD, a simple generic format for describing resources.

Related Work:

This specification replaces or supersedes:

  • Extensible Resource Identifier (XRI) Resolution Version 2.0, Committee Draft 03, February 2008

This specification is related to:

  • Extensible Resource Identifier (XRI) Version 3.0, Committee Draft 01, May 2009


This document was last revised or approved by the XRI Technical Committee on the above date. The level of approval is also listed above. Check the current location noted above for possible later revisions of this document. This document is updated periodically on no particular schedule.

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The non-normative errata page for this specification is located at http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/xri.


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Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1. Terminology
2. XRD Document Structure
2.1. Namespace and Schema Location
2.2. Document Property Elements
2.3. Resource Property Elements
2.4. Related Resource Elements
2.5. XRD Extensibility
3. Processing XRD Documents
3.1. Priority Attribute
3.2. Linked XRD Documents
3.3. Related Resource Selection
4. XRD Trust
4.1. Subject Matching
4.2. XRD Trust Models
4.3. XRD Signature
5. Conformance
5.1. XRD Consuming Application
5.2. XRD Publisher


A. Acknowledgments (Non-Normative)
B. Media Type Definition for application/xrd+xml

1. Introduction

This document defines XRD, a simple generic format for describing resources. Resource descriptor documents provide machine-readable information about resources (resource metadata) for the purpose of promoting interoperability and assist in interacting with unknown resources that support known interfaces.

For example, a web page about an upcoming meeting can provide in its descriptor document the location of the meeting organizer's free/busy information to potentially negotiate a different time. The descriptor for a social network profile page can identify the location of the user's address book as well as accounts on other sites. A web service implementing an API with optional components can advertise which of these are supported.

1.1. Terminology

The key words must, must not, required, shall, shall not, should, should not, recommended, may, and optional in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119].

2. XRD Document Structure

XRD provides a simple and extensible XML format for describing resources. An XRD document describes the properties of the resource itself, as well as the relationship the resource has with other resources. XRD builds directly on the typed link relations framework used by [HTTP Link Header], HTML, Atom, and other protocols.

The XRD schema defines only the basic elements necessary to support the most common use cases, with the explicit intention that applications will extend XRD as defined in Section 2.5, “XRD Extensibility” to include any other metadata about the resources they describe.

2.1. Namespace and Schema Location

The following [RELAX NG Compact] schema fragment defines the XML namespaces and other header information for the XRD schema:

default namespace = "http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0"
namespace xrd = "http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0"
namespace xml = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
datatypes xs = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-datatypes"

include "http://www.w3.org/2007/xmlsec/Drafts/xmldsig-rngschema/xmldsig-core-schema.rnc"

start = XRD

anyelementbody =
    (attribute * {text}
    | text
    | element * { anyelementbody } )*

non.xrd.element = element * - xrd:* {

other.attribute = attribute * - xrd:* { text }

The location of the normative RELAX NG schema file for an XRD document as defined by this specification is: http://docs.oasis-open.org/xri/xrd/v1.0/WD03/xrd-1.0-wd03.rnc

The following URI will always reference the latest version of this file: http://docs.oasis-open.org/xri/xrd/v1.0/xrd-1.0.rnc

2.2. Document Property Elements

XRD defines a few elements used to describe the properties of the XRD document itself. These elements describe what the document is about and provide administrative information as to how the information should be cached. In addition, XRD defines elements used to verify the authenticity of the document for the purpose of establishing trust and authority.

2.2.1. Element <XRD>

The <XRD> element encapsulates the entire resource descriptor, and is most commonly the root element of the document. It contains the following attributes and elements:

xml:id [Optional]

This attribute, of type xs:ID, is defined by [xml:id]. It provies a unique identifier for this XRD.

<Expires> [Zero or One]

Specifies when this document expires, as described in Section 2.2.2, “Element <Expires>.

<Subject> [Zero or One]

Provides the canonical identifier for the resource described by this XRD. When <Subject> appears as a child element of <XRD>, it identifies the resource the XRD document is about. See Section 2.2.3, “Element <Subject>.

<Alias> [Zero or More]

Provides an additional identifier for the resoure described by this XRD. See Section 2.3.1, “Element <Alias>.

<Type> [Zero or More]

Declares a property of the resource described by this XRD. See Section 2.3.2, “Element <Type>.

<Link> [Zero or More]

Identifies another resource which is related to the resource described by this XRD, and describes the semantics of that relationship. See Section 2.4.1, “Element <Link>.

<ds:Signature> [Zero or One]

This is an XML Signature, included from the [XML Signature] schema, that protects the integrity of the document, as described in Section 4.3, “XRD Signature”.

The following schema fragment defines the <XRD> element:

XRD = element XRD {
    attribute xml:id { xs:ID } ?,
    other.attribute *,
    Expires ?,
    Subject ?,
    ( Alias | Type | Link | non.xrd.elemnt ) *,
    Signature ?

2.2.2. Element <Expires>

This xs:dateTime value indicates the time instant after which the document is no longer valid and must not be used. The value must use the UTC "Z" time zone and must not use fractional seconds. In addition to this explicit expiration instant of the document, XRD consuming applications should comply with the caching rules of the transport protocol used to retrieve the XRD.

The following schema fragment defines the <Expires> element:

Expires = element Expires {
    other.attribute *,

2.2.3. Element <Subject>

<Subject> is a xs:anyURI value which identifies a resource. This value must be an absolute URI. <Subject> contains the following attributes:

match [Optional]

The match attribute, of type xs:anyURI, is used to indicate the rules which should be used when matching this <Subject> to another URI. See Section 4.1, “Subject Matching”.

The following schema fragment defines the <Subject> element:

Subject = element Subject {
    other.attribute *,

2.3. Resource Property Elements

These elements provide information and attributes about the resource that the XRD document is describing.

2.3.1. Element <Alias>

This xs:anyURI value provides an additional non-canonical identifier for the resource described by the XRD. This value must be an absolute URI.

The following schema fragment defines the <Alias> element:

Alias = element Alias {
    other.attribute *,

2.3.2. Element <Type>

The <Type> element, of type xs:anyURI, declares a property of the resource described by the XRD. The meaning of the <Type> value is application-specific, and is used by the XRD publisher to describe the resource to consuming applications familiar with the type identifier. <Type> contains the following attributes:

required [Optional]

The required attribute, of type xs:boolean, is used to indicate to a consuming application that some pre-defined knowledge is required in order to interact with the resource, without which undefined or potentially harmful side-effects can occur.

If the required attribute is omitted or explicitly set to false, a consuming application should ignore any <Type> with values it does not recognize, and interact with the resource based on the values it does recognize. If the required attribute is set to true, a consuming application must not interact with the resource if it does not recognize the type identifier. The required attribute should not be used unless such harmful side-effects are likely.

The following schema fragment defines the <Type> element:

Type = element Type {
    attribute required { xs:boolean } ?,
    other.attribute *,

2.4. Related Resource Elements

One of the primary uses of XRD is to describe the relationship between different resources. The following elements identify and describe the other resources which are related to the resource the XRD document is describing.

2.4.1. Element <Link>

The <Link> element serves as a container for metadata about the related resource, and carries similar semantics as the HTML Link element, the ATOM Link element, and the HTTP Link Header. The one distinction is that link relationships described by the <Link> element are between the resource described by the XRD and the linked resources, and not between the XRD itself and the linked resource. <Link> has the following elements and attributes:

priority [Optional]

The priority attribute is of type xs:nonNegativeInteger. See Section 3.1, “Priority Attribute”.

<Subject> [Zero or One]

When <Subject> appears as a child element of a <Link>, it identifies the linked resource. This asserts the value that should be expected for the <Subject> in the linked XRD. Use of this element in establishing trust can be found in Section 4, “XRD Trust”. For the syntax of this element, see Section 2.2.3, “Element <Subject>.

<Rel> [Zero or More]

Defines the semantics of the link relationship. See Section 2.4.2, “Element <Rel>.

<MediaType> [Zero or More]

Provides a hint at the media type of the linked resource. See Section 2.4.3, “Element <MediaType>.

<URI> [Zero or More]

Identifies how the linked resource can be retrieved. See Section 2.4.4, “Element <URI>.

<URITemplate> [Zero or More]

Provides a template which can be used to obtain a URI for retrieving the resource. See Section 2.4.5, “Element <URITemplate>.

<ds:KeyInfo> [Zero or More]

KeyInfo is included from the [XML Signature] schema, and provides the digital signature metadata necessary to validate interaction with the linked resource. See Section 4, “XRD Trust”.

The following schema fragment defines the <Link> element:

Link = element Link {
    attribute priority { xs:nonNegativeInteger } ?,
    other.attribute *,
    Subject ?,
    ( Rel | MediaType | URI | URITemplate | KeyInfo | non.xrd.element ) *

2.4.2. Element <Rel>

This xs:anyURI value defines the semantics of the relationship between the resource described by the XRD and the linked resource. <Rel> is semantically equivalent to the Link Relationship Types defined in [HTTP Link Header]. It is important to note that this value does not identify any property of the linked resource. Rather, it describes only how the linked resource is related to the resource described by the XRD.

The following schema fragment defines the <Rel> element:

Rel = element Rel {
    other.attribute *,

2.4.3. Element <MediaType>

This xs:string value provides a hint as to the media type of the linked resource. The value of this element must be of the form of a media type defined in [RFC 2046]. The IANA media types registry can be found at http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/.

The following schema fragment defines the <MediaType> element:

MediaType = element MediaType {
    other.attribute *,

2.4.4. Element <URI>

<URI> is a xs:anyURI value that provides the URI where the linked resource can be found and used or retrieved. If no URI element is defined, it is assumed the URI can be obtained by other means not specified in this specification. <URI> has the following attributes:

priority [Optional]

The priority attribute is of type xs:nonNegativeInteger. See Section 3.1, “Priority Attribute”.

The following schema fragment defines the <URI> element:

URI = element URI {
    attribute priority { xs:nonNegativeInteger } ?,
    other.attribute *,

2.4.5. Element <URITemplate>

<URITemplate> is of type xs:string. The template syntax provides a simple format for URI transformation. A template is a string containing brace-enclosed ("{}") variable names marking the parts of the string that are to be substituted by the corresponding variable values. The dictionary of allowed variable names is defined by one or more <Rel> values of the enclosing <Link>. A template is transformed into a URI by substituting the variables (along with their enclosing braces) with their calculated value. If a variable name is prefixed by "%", any character in the variable value other than unreserved must be percent-encoded per [RFC 3986].

This specification does not define when or how template variables are interposed into link templates. Link relationship values that wish to allow templating should specify such details.

<URITemplate> has the following attributes:

priority [Optional]

The priority attribute is of type xs:nonNegativeInteger. See Section 3.1, “Priority Attribute”.

The following schema fragment defines the <URITemplate> element:

URITemplate = element URITemplate {
    attribute priority { xs:nonNegativeInteger } ?,
    other.attribute *,

2.5. XRD Extensibility

The XRD schema defines only the basic elements necessary to support the most common use cases, with the explicit intention that applications will extend XRD to include any other metadata about the resources they describe. XRD documents can be extended by providing custom, meaningful values for certain URI-based elements, as well as by extending the XML elements directly.

2.5.1. Identifier Extension

XRD uses URI-based identifiers for describing resources as well as for describing the relationships between resources. It is expected that applications will use appropriate established URI identifiers for these purposes, or define new identifiers as necessary. It is recommended that any new identifiers be defined in a formal specification of use. In no case should the meaning of a given URI used as such an identifier significantly change, or be used to mean two different things.

2.5.2. Schema Extension

The XRD schema allows for the inclusion of attributes from arbitrary namespaces (except for the XRD namespace) in all XRD elements. Additionally, the <XRD> and <Link> elements allow for the inclusion of child elements from arbitrary namepsaces (except for the XRD namespace).

XML extensions must not require new interpretation of elements defined in this document. If an extension element is present, a processor must be able to ignore it and still correctly process the XRD document.

3. Processing XRD Documents

XRD documents identify other resources which are related to the resource the XRD is describing. Once the document has been obtained, the consuming application typically performs resource selection to extract the descriptions of resources relevant to it. The selection process involves iterating through the list of related resource descriptions, filtering them based on various metadata, and selecting them based on their relative priorities.

3.1. Priority Attribute

XRD allows the <Link>, <URI>, and <URITemplate> elements to appear multiple times within the same parent element to provide redundancy, flexibility, or for other purposes. When these elements appear more than once within the same parent, XRD publishers should use the priority attribute to prioritize selection of these element instances.

The priority attribute type is xs:nonNegativeInteger - its value must be a non-negative integer value. The attribute works in a similar manner to DNS records priority, where the lowest value has the highest priority. This means zero has the highest priority and infinity - represented by the absence of the priority attribute - carries the lowest priority. Instead of omitting the attribute, however, it is recommended to follow the standard practice in DNS and set the priority value to 10. When a publisher wishes to indicate a very low priority, it is recommended to use a large finite value (100 or higher) rather than omitting the attribute.

Consuming applications should select the element with the highest priority - the lowest numeric value of the priority attribute. In the following example, the URIs decreasing order of priority is 0, 10, 11, 25, and last the element with the omitted priority attribute.

    <URI priority="10">http://example.com/second</URI>
    <URI priority="25">http://example.com/fourth</URI>
    <URI priority="11">http://example.com/third</URI>
    <URI priority="0">http://example.com/highest</URI>

If two or more instances of the same element type have identical priority attribute values (including infinity), the consuming application should select one of the instances at random, and not simply choose the first instance that appears in XML document order.

The element selected according to these rules is referred to as the highest priority element. If this element is subsequently disqualified from the set of qualified elements, the consuming application should attempt to select the next highest priority element. This process should be continued for all other instances of the qualified elements until success is achieved or all instances are exhausted.

3.1.1. Priority of <URI> and <URITemplate> elements

The URI for a related resource can be expressed using two different elements, <URI> and <URITemplate>, which differ only in the fact that templates require addtional processing in order to obtain the final URI. Therefore, elements of both types should be combined and sorted together in order to obtain the URI of highest priority. In the following example, the highest priority URI would be the resultant URI from processing the template {uri};service.

    <URI priority="20">http://example.com/</URI>
    <URITemplate priority="10">{uri};service</URI>

3.2. Linked XRD Documents

The XRD document for a resource may assert that a different XRD document may be used as an equally valid descriptor for the same described resource. This allows for distributed management of descriptor documents, both within and across authority boundaries. A linked XRD is identified by a <Link> containing a <Rel> value of http://docs.oasis-open.org/xri/xrd/rel/see-also and a specified Subject value, as demonstrated in the following example.


3.3. Related Resource Selection

Based on the consuming application's needs, the application defines a selection criteria based on the presence (or lack of) certain resource relationship values and media-types. The selection criteria can be any combination of metadata describing the linked resources such as <Rel>, <MediaType>, <URI>, or non-XRD extension elements or attributes. For example, an application can look for all related resources with an image media-type, the URI of a related resource with a SAML authentication relationship, or the properties of a specific related resource given its URI.

If the selection criteria place higher preference on the presence of certain relationships or media-types over others, it is handled by performing multiple selections. Each selection is assigned preference order based on the consuming application's needs and the selection results are compared to determine the most desired set. For example, if an application is looking for all image resources, giving higher preference to the JPEG formats over PNG, it will perform two selection processes, one for each media-type, and assign the resources in the JPEG set a higher preference value.

The consuming application performs the following steps in order to select the desired related resource descriptions:

  • Each <Link> element is compared against the selection criteria by comparing the values of the <Link> child elements and attributes to those defined by the selection criteria.

  • If more than one <Link> element is matched, the consuming application must use the priority attribute values to find the highest priority element as defined in Section 3.1, “Priority Attribute”.

  • Within a matching <Link> element, if more than one <URI> or <URITemplate> elements are present, the consuming application must use the priority attribute values to find the highest priority element as defined in Section 3.1.1, “Priority of <URI> and <URITemplate> elements”.

  • If no <Link> elements meet the selection criteria, the consuming application should look for linked XRD documents, using the search criteria defined in Section 3.2, “Linked XRD Documents”. If more than one linked XRD is found, they must be processed in priority order, as defined in Section 3.1, “Priority Attribute”. If the linked resource is a valid XRD document, the consuming application should repeat this resource selection flow on the linked XRD. If the linked resource is not a valid XRD document, or a matching <Link> element cannot be found in the linked XRD, the consuming application should continue with the next linked XRD. A consuming application may choose to limit the depth to which it will follow linked XRD documents for performance or other reasons.

4. XRD Trust

XRD documents digitally signed by the publishing authority supports document integrity and authentication of the publishing authority to an XRD consuming application. {TODO: finish this}

4.1. Subject Matching

{TODO: Different rules for subject matching}

4.2. XRD Trust Models

{TODO: do we need to talk about different trust models for XRD? PKI-based vs XRD-chaining with embedded certs?}

4.3. XRD Signature

The [XML Signature] specification calls out a general XML syntax for signing data with flexibility and many choices. This section details constraints on these facilities so that XRD consuming applications do not have to deal with the full generality of XML Signature processing.

4.3.1. Signing Formats and Algorithms

XML Signature has three ways of relating a signature to a document: enveloping, enveloped, and detached. XRD documents must use enveloped signatures when signing. XRD consuming applications should support the use of RSA signing and verification for public key operations in accordance with the algorithm identified by http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#rsa-sha256.

4.3.2. References

XRD documents must supply a value for the xml:id attribute on the root element of the XRD being signed. The XRD's root element may or may not be the root element of the actual XML document containing the signed XRD (e.g., it might be contained within an <XRDS> sequence element).

Signatures must contain a single <ds:Reference> containing a same-document reference to the xml:id attribute value of the root element of the XRD being signed. For example, if the xml:id attribute value is foo, then the URI attribute in the <ds:Reference> element must be #foo.

4.3.3. Canonicalization

XRD implementations must use [Exclusive Canonicalization], with or without comments, both in the <ds:CanonicalizationMethod> element of <ds:SignedInfo>, and as a <ds:Transform> algorithm. Use of Exclusive Canonicalization ensures that signatures created over XRD documents embedded in an XML context can be verified independent of that context.

4.3.4. Transforms

Signatures in XRD documents must not contain transforms other than the enveloped signature transform (with the identifier http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#enveloped-signature) or the exclusive canonicalization transforms (with the identifier http://www.w3.org/2001/10/xml-exc-c14n# or http://www.w3.org/2001/10/xml-exc-c14n#WithComments).

4.3.5. KeyInfo

XML Signature defines usage of the <ds:KeyInfo> element. XRD does not require the use of <ds:KeyInfo>, nor does it impose any restrictions on its use. Therefore, <ds:KeyInfo> may be absent.

4.3.6. Example

Following is an example of a signed XRD document. Line breaks have been added for readability; the signatures are not valid and cannot be successfully verified.

<XRD xmlns="http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0" xml:id="foo" 
    <ds:Signature xmlns:ds="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#"> 
            <ds:CanonicalizationMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2001/10/xml-exc-c14n#"/> 
            <ds:SignatureMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#rsa-sha1"/> 
            <ds:Reference URI="#foo">
                    <ds:Transform Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2001/10/xml-exc-c14n#"> 
                        <InclusiveNamespaces PrefixList="#default xrd ds xs xsi" 
                <ds:DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/> 

5. Conformance

An implementation is a conforming XRD consuming application if the implementation meets the conditions in Section 5.1, “XRD Consuming Application”. An implementation is a conforming XRD publisher if the implementation meets the conditions in Section 5.2, “XRD Publisher”. An implementation may serve as both an XRD consuming application and publisher.

5.1. XRD Consuming Application

An implementation conforms to this specification as an XRD consuming application if it meets the following conditions:

  1. It must implement parsing of XRD documents which conform to the XRD schema as specified in Section 2, “XRD Document Structure”.

  2. It must conform to the processing rules as specified in Section 3, “Processing XRD Documents”.

5.2. XRD Publisher

An implementation conforms to this specification as an XRD publisher if it meets the following conditions:

  1. Any published XRD documents must conform to the XRD schema as specified in Section 2, “XRD Document Structure”.

A. Acknowledgments (Non-Normative)

The editors would like to thank the following current and former members of the OASIS XRI TC for their particular contributions to this and previous versions of this specification:

  • {TODO}

The editors would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the other members of the OASIS XRI Technical Committee, whose other voting members at the time of publication were:

  • {TODO}

B. Media Type Definition for application/xrd+xml

This section is prepared in anticipation of filing a media type registration meeting the requirements of [RFC 4288].

Type name:


Subtype name:


Required parameters:


Optional paramters:


Encoding considerations:

Identical to those of application/xml as described by [RFC 3023]

Security considerations:

As defined in this specification. In addition, as this media type uses the "+xml" convention, it shares the same security considerations as described in [RFC 3023], Section 10.

Interoperability considerations:

There are no known interoperability issues.

Published specification:

This specification

Applications that use this media type:

Applications conforming to this specification use this media type.

Person & email address to contact for further information:

Drummond Reed, OASIS XRI Technical Committee Co-Chair, drummond.reed@cordance.net

Intended usage:


Restrictions on usage:



OASIS XRI Technical Comittee

Change controller:

OASIS XRI Technical Comittee


[RFC 2046] N. Freed, N. Borenstein Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 1996.

[RFC 2119] S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 1997.

[RFC 2606] E. Eastlake, A. Panitz Reserved Top Level DNS Names. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 1999.

[RFC 2616] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 1999.

[RFC 3023] M. Murata, S. St.Laurent, D. Kohn XML Media Types. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 2001.

[RFC 3986] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 2005.

[RFC 4287] M. Nottingham The Atom Syndication Format. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 2005.

[RFC 4288] N. Freed, J. Klensin Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). 2005.

[RELAX NG Compact] J. Clark RELAX NG Compact Syntax. OASIS Committee Specification. 2002

[HTML 4.01] D. Raggett HTML 4.01 Specification. W3 Recommendation. 1999

[HTTP Link Header] M. Nottingham Link Relations and HTTP Header Linking. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Draft. 2009.

[Site Meta] M. Nottingham, E. Hammer-Lahav Host Metadata for the Web. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Draft. 2009.

[XRI Resolution 2.0] G. Wachob Extensible Resource Identifier (XRI) Resolution V2.0. February 2008.

[LRDD] E. Hammer-Lahav Link-based Resource Descriptor Discovery. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Draft. 2009.

[xml:id] J. Marsh, et al xml:id. W3 Recommendation. 2005

[XML Signature] D. Eastlake, et al XML Signature Syntax and Processing. W3 Recommendation. 2008

[Exclusive Canonicalization] J. Boyer, et al Exclusive XML Canonicalization. W3 Recommendation. 2002