The Kavi Glossary

The Kavi Glossary includes technical terms and terms that have specific meanings in Kavi applications.


accepted domains

There are several different ways that KaviŪ Members can be configured to enforce accepted domains for organizations that offer company memberships. When accepted domain enforcement is enabled, each member company is required to provide a list of the domains it uses for company-issued email addresses. This list of company email domains is known as the accepted domains list. It is used to prescreen users during the company representative signup process by either assigning the user to their company based on the domain of the email address they entered, or if the user's company is selected manually, the user must enter an email address that uses one of their company's accepted domains. This helps prevent users who don't belong to a company from signing up as representatives of that company.

Some organizations configure Kavi Members to enforce accepted domains after signup so that company representatives are required to use an company-issued email address throughout their tenure with the organization, ensuring that email from the organization is only sent out directly to a known set of member-company-owned domains. This makes it more difficult for company representatives to interact with the website when they are out of the office so most organizations use accepted domains only as a prescreening mechanism.

See Also Company Representative, domain, domain name.

account holder

A user in the Kavi Members database who has a username and password. By definition, this excludes Public Users who can visit Public Areas of an organization's web site but cannot login to protected areas. Depending on the organization, account holders may include Individual Members, Company Representatives and Individual Nonmembers.

This term generally isn't applied to staff because they interact differently with the organization than other users. Kavi Billing may create 'Billing Accounts' for Public Users who do not qualify as account holders because they aren't in the Kavi Members database.

See Also Billing Account, Company Representative, Individual Member, Individual Nonmember, Staff Person.

Account Status

Kavi Billing and KaviŪ Commerce term. Most Kavi applications use Status to determine whether an object such as a user or company is 'active' or 'inactive'. Kavi Billing and KaviŪ Commerce use a larger set of statuses to indicate where the account is in its life cycle and whether the account holder currently has access to online tools.

See Also active, inactive, status.

Account Type

Kavi Billing term. The account type can be user, company, pending user or pending company. The account type indicates whether the billing account is for a regular user or company, or for a user or company whose membership application is still pending.

action item

KaviŪ Groups term. Action items act as a task list for a group. Each action item has an owner, a due date, and a description. Once an action item is complete, it can be closed, making it easy for the group to see which tasks are complete and which are outstanding.


This status indicates an account holder or other object in the database is 'active' in the organization's website, as opposed to 'inactive'. The status values of 'active' and 'inactive' work as a switch that the organization uses to control access, visibility, etc. Most objects, such as users and companies, are inactive when they are first added to the database, then activated for some period of time, then deactivated again before archiving. Active objects are visible to account holders, while inactive objects are visible to administrators only.

For instance, companies and users may be added to the database when they apply for accounts, activated when their membership goes current, and deactivated if their membership expires. Users can log into the website if they are active, but inactive users cannot. Profiles and catalog items must be active to be displayed in KaviŪ Showcase, registrations must be active in order to be displayed on event pages, etc.

See Also inactive.

activity history

The activity history is a user-friendly record of changes made to an application database, including the date of the change, an Activity Type indicating the nature of the change and Activity Notes added by administrators. Most Kavi applications offer built-in activity histories to track changes to data managed by that application. For example, Kavi Members has both user and company activity histories to record changes to user and company data over time.

See Also Activity Type, Activity Note.

Activity Note

Comments added manually by an administrator or an application for inclusion in an activity history. Activity Notes can only be seen by administrators.

See Also activity history.

Activity Type

Used in activity histories to indicate the nature of a change made to data in a database. An Activity Type can be one of several default types installed by a specific Kavi application (e.g., added, edited, email, etc.). In Kavi Members, organizations can create custom Activity Types to classify a certain type of event such as 'phone_conversation'.

See Also activity history.

additional field

Kavi Status Tracker term. Kavi applications are extensible by design, so an application usually includes both default and additional data fields. Default data fields may be documented in the help, whereas additional data fields are unique to the organization. Additional data fields are automatically made available in reports and in the Kavi Email Scheduler, where they appear as email template variables. The variable names usually follow standard naming conventions as described in data field documents located in the Appendix of the online application help.

admin, administrator, administrative rights

Administrators are highly-privileged users responsible for maintaining data and managing user permissions. These privileges are granted to users through Kavi Members, which manages most of the top-level administrative User Types, including 'Super Admin', 'Organization Admin' and 'Report Admin'. Other Kavi applications install administrative types that confer access to the application's Admin Area and tools (e.g., Kavi Showcase's 'Showcase Admin'), but the 'Organization Admin' generally has access to the Admin Area and Reports Area in every application. The 'Report Admin' can access the Reports Area in all applications, and the 'Super Admin' type has access to all administrative areas (e.g., Super Admin Area, Admin Area, Reports Area) in all applications.

Company-based and mixed organizations that share the responsibility of maintaining company data with company representatives have company administrators whose administrative privileges are restricted to viewing and editing only their own company's data and user roster. In these organizations the 'Primary Contact' and other company administrators are granted access to Company Areas and tools they can use to view and manage their company's data.

See Also User Type, Contact Type.


Mailing list term. A standard block of text containing administrative contact information that is inserted into mailing list messages.


An alias is a single email address that forwards messages to a group of other email addresses. An alias is really a shortcut: a convenient and often easily remembered way of sending email to many people at once. Unlike mailing lists, aliases have no applied rules: they are not moderated, are not archived, and cannot be managed using email commands. Aliases simply redistribute mail to the group of specified recipients.

Most Kavi software products recommend the use of an administrative alias or email address be used when sending out email from the applications and directing users to support. Most websites will use the alias "" as the administrative contact address. Managers and executive director's personal email addresses in the alias list are then forwarded any email sent to the admin alias. This is especially useful when there are staff changes because the alias list can be revised to include the new staff people without having to change the alias itself.

Kavi Mailing List Manager includes tools for creating and managing aliases.

See Also alias list, mailing list.

alias list

The list of email addresses to which an alias forwards every message it receives. For example, the alias list for a support alias such as "" may include the email addresses of managers and executive directors. Changes in the addresses in the alias list are transparent to users sending email to the alias, as the alias itself does not change. An alias list may contain other aliases, for instance, "" may be on the "" alias.

See Also alias.

Allow List, Allow Subscriber List

Mailing list term. Administrators ad email addresses to the Allow Subscriber List to grant subscriber-level posting privileges. These email addresses belong to list users who are not otherwise subscribed but need to be allowed to post messages. Subscribers on the Allow list may include staff or trusted members of the public.

This is similar to the Poster Subscriber List, but Posters are the secondary and alternate email addresses of list users who are subscribed to receive messages under their primary email address.

See Also mailing list, poster, Poster List, envelope sender.


Apache is a Unix-based, open-source webserver that is used to host about half the sites on the Internet. Kavi websites are hosted on Apache.


A user or company applying for an organization membership, website account or group participation privileges. An application may be approved automatically or there may be requirements that have to be met, possibly including moderator approval.


Kavi Members term. The membership renewal process for a specific membership type may be initiated automatically if the auto-renewal feature is enabled. For more information, see the Kavi Members Concept document on Auto-Renewal.

authenticated user

An account holder who has logged into the organization's website.

This term is used throughout Kavi applications. When used as an email recipient, it indicates the user who initiated the action that triggered the email, such as the user who added or edited a Kavi Showcase catalog item or profile.

See Also account holder.

authorize charge

Kavi Commerce term. A request to charge a credit card for a specified amount through a payment gateway. If the authorization request is granted, a reserve will be placed for the specified amount in the cardholder's account without actually capturing the funds. When appropriate, the card will be charged and the funds captured.

See Also delayed capture.

autonaming, document autonaming

Kavi Groups term. Documents uploaded to a folder can be assigned names automatically, rather than having their names added manually by the submitter. The assigned names are sequential and based on a user-defined format. For example, a document may be automatically assigned a prefix and a number.

awaiting gateway

Kavi Commerce term. Kavi Commerce connects with payment gateways to process credit card transactions. A transaction consists of an authorization request sent to the Internet merchant account and a response indicating the charge is authorized. This status is assigned by Kavi Commerce to transactions where the request-response cycle is incomplete. Once the transaction is complete, this status is removed.

See Also gateway.



Formal voting mechanism in Kavi Groups. Ballots can be issued for a single group or for the entire organization. Each ballot's list of eligible voters is generated based on the group's business rules, which may be very open or very restrictive. The passage of a ballot may be dependent on quorum requirements or a simple majority of votes cast.

Bill ID

Used by Kavi Billing, the Bill ID is a human-readable identifier generated automatically when a new bill is created. The basic format for a Bill ID can be configured by each organization.

bill status

Used by Kavi Billing, the bill status indicates where a bill is in its life cycle. Bill statuses include New, Pending, Paid, Overdue, Awaiting Gateway, Failed Gateway, Disputed, Refunded, Canceled, Deleted.

Billing Account

KaviŪ Billing term. A company or user has a "Billing Account" if there is a record for that company or user in the KaviŪ Billing database.


When an email cannot be delivered to an email address, it is returned to the sender. This returned message is called a bounce. Email can bounce for many reasons, including an improperly typed email address, an email address that is no longer viable, or a temporary network issue that blocks any email to the email address.

See Also bounce handling.

bounce handling

Ezmlm includes automatic tools that detect and remove bad email addresses from mailing lists. This process is called bounce handling. Typically, when an email address is bouncing mailing list messages, the mailing list will send out a special email to the address, called a probe, to see if the probe email can be delivered successfully. If the probe bounces too, the email address will be unsubscribed from the list. Kavi Mailing List Manager logs all email addresses removed from lists it manages by the bounce handler.

See Also bounce, EZ Mailing List Manager, probe.


Mailing list term. A blocklist is similar to a Deny Subscriber List, but instead of being local to a specific mailing list, the blocklist published by Spamhaus contains the IP addresses of known spammers. Kavi spam filters block all email sent to Kavi-hosted websites from blocklisted IPs.

See Also Deny Subscriber List, Deny List, IP address, internet address.


This term comes from the Brothers Grimm fairy tale of "Hansel and Gretel", who left a trail of breadcrumbs in the forest so they could find their way home again. Breadcrumbs show where you are in the website by displaying a series of links that trace the directory structure from the parent page down to the current page. Breadcrumbs are typically displayed at the top of the webpage.

Use breadcrumbs to navigate quickly from tool to parent menu.


Software that allows you to "surf" the Internet. Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer are examples of Web browsers. A browser provides an interface for finding, viewing, hearing, and interacting with material on the Web.

Kavi software incorporates Web standards to ensure that any browser will be able to use our sites. While any browser will work, using a browser with excellent built-in support for Web standards (such as Mozilla's Firefox) will give you the best results, as these browsers take full advantage of all the usability and interoperability features outlined in Web standards specifications.


Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)

A W3C Recommendation, CSS files are used to control the look of HTML webpages. CSS can define the fonts used, the colors, spacing, and other layout properties. Kavi software use CSS heavily to increase the ease with which the application can be made to match any website's look and feel.

See Also Hypertext Markup Language.

cache, browser cache

The browser cache stores the contents of all the webpages you have viewed recently so they can be retrieved quickly.

Every time you want to view a webpage, your browser looks to see if the page is already stored in the cache. If it is, the browser displays the page from the cache. Unfortunately, if the page on the Web changed since the last time you visited it and your browser displayed the old version from the cache, you won't be viewing the latest version of the page. This is referred to as a stale browser cache.

catalog item

Kavi Showcase term. A Catalog Item displays information about something of interest to the organization's members or the community at large, such as a standards-compliant product, a specification, etc. Catalog Items are displayed colletively in the Kavi Showcase Catalog. Every Catalog Item must be associated with a Profile, for example a product could be associated with a company profile or a document associated with its author's profile.

See Also profile.


Kavi Groups term. Chair privileges are granted to group participants when setting up new groups or managing the group roster. The Chair is considered the group leader, and by default will have additional management privileges and be sent email notifications not sent to regular group members.

Each group is required to have one or more Chairs.


An informal, condensed log of changes made to a Kavi application. Each application changelog is updated and republished for every stable release.


A type of form, generally used for terms and conditions, that requires the user to click a checkbox indicating agreement before the user is taken to the next page of the signup process. If the user declines, the signup process is usually terminated. Most users have encountered click-through forms when installing commercial software.

See Also terms and conditions.


Kavi application term. Cloning is a quick, simple way to copy an existing object such as a report or mailing list in order to create a new report or mailing based on the original. The clone is configured exactly like the original, except that it contains no data other than configuration settings. For example, a mailing list cloned from an active mailing list will have the same configuration as the active mailing list, but won't have any subscribers or archives. Once the clone exists, the administrator edits settings, text and other configuration details as required and the new report, mailing list or other object is ready for use in a short time with minimum effort.

closed-loop, confirmed opt-in

Method of verifying an individual's wish to have their email address added to a mailing list before they are subscribed. In a closed-loop, confirmed opt-in subscription model, the mailing list sends a confirmation email to the email address associated with any subscription request. The potential subscriber must reply to this email, confirming their desire to be subscribed to the list and giving the list explicit permission to subscribe the email address.

The closed-loop, confirmed opt-in method of validating new subscribers is the gold standard for mailing lists. By seeking explicit permission from all subscribers, the mailing list is protected from spam complaints and reduces the risk of being blocklisted that is associated with less stringent subscription models.

See Also blocklist.

closed subscription model

Mailing lists that only allow subscribers to be added by administrators use the closed subscription model. Since users aren't allowed to subscribe directly, lists that use this model are often called "invitation-only" lists.

See Also open subscription model.


Kavi Members term. Kavi software uses the term "company" to refer generically to any aggregate user entity, so it includes actual companies but also non-profits, educational institutions, governmental bodies, etc. If the organization offers company memberships, most companies in the Kavi Members database are probably Member Companies.

Kavi Members requires every user to be assigned to a company so that they can be managed effectively, and this applies to individual-based organizations as well. These organizations may have companies in their database that don't exist in the real world, and were added solely for the purpose of grouping individuals. For example, an individual-based organization might assign users to companies based on whether the user is an Individual Member or Individual Nonmember, or according to regional division, etc. This type of company is called a 'Company for Individuals'.

See Also Company for Individuals, individual-based organization, Individual Member, Individual Nonmember, Member Company.

company administrator

Kavi applications term. A "company administrator" is a generic term applied to any user who has access to Company Area tools. In Kavi Members, this is a user who has acquired the 'company_admin' role through a Contact Type such as the default type 'Primary Contact' or a custom Contact Type associated with this role.

See Also Contact Type, Primary Contact, role.

Company for Individuals

Kavi Members term. 'Company for Individuals' is one of four possible Purposes for a company. It is used by individual-based and mixed organizations. A company with this purpose may be a real-world company or one added to the Kavi Members database solely to group individuals, including 'Individual Members' and 'Individual Nonmembers'.

See Also company-based organization, Individual Member, Individual Nonmember, mixed organization, Purpose.

Company Representative

Kavi Members term. A Company Representative is a user who is granted access to the organization's website through their company and represents their company to organization. A Company Representative acts on behalf of their company to help secure a return on the company's investment in the organization. In Kavi Members, Company Representative is a purpose assigned to users who belong to member and nonmember companies.

See Also Member Company, Nonmember Company, Purpose.

Company Type

Kavi Members term. Company Types are assigned to companies to classify them. They can also confer roles and access privileges, which are inherited by users who belong to that company. The classic example is a Company Type created to be assigned through membership. This type would probably confer the 'member' role, which grants access to the Member Area of the site.

company-based organization

An organization that offers full memberships to companies only— not to individuals. Users are granted accounts and access to the site if they represent a member company or are employed by the organization. Organizations that offer memberships to individuals as well as companies are classified as mixed organizations.

See Also individual-based organization, mixed organization.

Contact Type

Contact Types classify users according to the way they represent their company to the organization. This applies to all users, even those who represent themselves or who belong to a staff company. Different Contact Types are assigned to kinds of users. By default, some Contact Types are automatically assigned to users based on User Purpose. The default Contact Type 'Individual' is assigned to users whose purpose is 'Individual Member' or 'Individual Nonmember', the default Contact Type 'Employee' is assigned to users whose purpose is 'Company Representative' and the default Contact Type 'Staff' is assigned to users whose purpose is 'Staff Person'.

Contact Types may be associated with roles that confer access to protected areas and tools. The default Contact Type 'Primary Contact' is the best example of this. It is associated with the 'company_admin' role that grants access to Company Admin tools. When a user is designated as a 'Primary Contact' and assigned this Contact Type the user acquires this role and access to the tools needed to manage their company's roster and data.

content type

A technical term referring to the format of a file. When a document or file is uploaded, the user's browser passes along content type information to the website. For example, if when a .ZIP file is uploaded, the browser should declare its content type as "application/zip".


Cookies are text files placed on your computer by a website to store information about your visit to the website, and are especially useful when helping the system maintain state. A cookie can be created when you login to a secure site to identify you as an authenticated user so you can navigate to different protected areas of the site without having to login every time you go to a new page. This kind of cookie is called a session cookie—it only exists as long as your browser session persists. When you close your browser, the session cookie is automatically deleted, so on your next visit to the site, you must login again.

Session cookies can also be used to fight spam on bulletin boards. Spam drones don't accept cookies so bulletin boards can reject submissions based on whether the cookie can be set or not. Kavi Edit uses persistent cookies to log editors onto public pages and give them access to Kavi Edit tools.

comma-separated values (CSV)

A simple file format used to transfer data from one application to another. Each line of the file contains an ordered list of values, with the value for each field in the row separated by a comma from the next value. The first line in the file contains the names of database column headings (e.g., 'first_name', 'last_name', 'company_name'), and each subsequent row corresponds to a record in the database. CSV files can be opened and edited in spreadsheet applications or text editors.

created by

Kavi Billing and Kavi Commerce term. The 'created by' field indicates which application initiated the request to create the bill or transaction. For example, a bill created during the membership application process would store the value 'Kavi Members' in this field because Kavi Members is the application that handles membership signup.

CVV2 or CVC2 security code

Security codes, also known as CVV2 (Visa) or CVC2 (MasterCard), are three- or four-digit codes printed on credit cards. Because the code isn't raised, it won't appear on sales receipts, nor is it included in the magnetic stripe information collected by electronic credit card readers and it is not used in billing statements. This ensures that the card holder must have the card on hand in order to use this code.



A collection of organized data, usually stored as a series of tables for rapid search and retrieval. Kavi Members and Kavi Groups use the MySQL relational database management system to facilitate reporting, management and dynamic content.

delayed capture

When shopping at an online store, it is considered best practice for the merchant to abstain from charging the customer's credit card until the goods are shipped. Delayed capture is the second step in the delayed settlement process, following the authorization of the charge that was made when the order was first placed. When the order is fulfilled, the information from a prior authorization is used to capture funds.

See Also authorize charge.

delayed settlement

This is a payment process involving two transactions. Authorization is acquired in the first transaction, generally when an order is placed, and funds are captured in a second transaction once the order has shipped.

See Also authorize charge, delayed capture.

Deny Subscriber List, Deny List

Mailing list term. Email addresses that would ordinarily have posting privileges can be placed on a Deny Subscriber List to revoke posting privileges. List users who post inappropriate content can be placed on the Deny Subscriber List as a means of enforcing list policy.

See Also blocklist.

Digest Subscriber

A Digest Subscriber receives email sent to the mailing list in batches: many messages rolled into one. By default, a digest subscriber receives email after 30 messages, 48 hours, or 64 kilobytes of message body text have accumulated since the last digest. Digest subscription is an alternative to regular subscription. If the digest feature is enabled, list users can select either of these two options when subscribing.

See Also moderator, poster, Poster List, regular subscriber.


A listing of users or companies and their contact information. Kavi Members features include configurable directories with search and download capabilities.


As it is used by Kavi Groups, the term document refers to any kind of file; for example, Microsoft Word (.DOC), Microsoft Excel (.XLS), Adobe Acrobat (.PDF), multimedia (.MPEG, .WAV), executable (.EXE), graphic (.GIF, .JPEG), text (.TXT), and so on. These files reside in folders and are associated with specific groups.

document revision

A revision is a second copy or related document uploaded with an original document in Kavi Groups. All revisions of a document are listed together in the documents repository, and can reflect the progress of a document from the initial draft to the final published version.

document type

Term used by Kavi Groups. A document type is a collection of one or more content types, which is used to display an icon next to the document. Because many browsers submit slightly different content types for what is really the same type of file Kavi Groups associates each of those different content types to a single document type. For example, GIF, JPEG, and other similar content types are all grouped into the document type of "image".

domain, domain name

The unique portion of a URL, usually appears directly after "http://www." in a website's Internet address. The domain consists of domainname.tld (where .tld stands for the top-level domain, such as .org, .com, .edu, etc.). This unique domain also appears in email addresses following the @ symbol (e.g., username@domainname.tld).

In Kavi documentation, the domain of the organization is represented by '', while the domain of a company is represented by ''. The organization's website address would appear as '' and a user's company email address appears as ''.

See Also accepted domains, fully qualified domain name, subdomain, top-level domain, Uniform Resource Locator.

Domain Name System (DNS)

A system of servers distributed over the Internet that are used to translate fully qualified domain names, such as those used in email addresses, into IP addresses. When transferring an email, the Mail Transfer Agent uses the DNS to locate a server that accepts email for the address domain.

See Also fully qualified domain name, IP address, internet address, mail transfer agent.


The duration of a membership is the length of time a membership will last (e.g., 6 months, 1 year, a lifetime).

Membership dates for a specific type of membership may be based on a duration (e.g., one year, a lifetime) or a term (e.g., Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st of a given year). If the membership type used a fixed duration of one year, the memberships of Member A and Member B would both last a year, but each membership would have different start and end dates. If a membership type uses a fixed term, Member B who joins mid-term would have a different start date than Member A who joined before the term began, but both memberships would expire on the same day.

See Also term, membership term.



Ecommerce, a term derived from "Electronic Commerce," is the practice of doing business over the Internet. In particular, ecommerce refers to transactions performed online (i.e., the collection of credit card information and the electronic transfer of funds).

email address command

Mailing lists based on ezmlm software can be configured to accept administrative commands via email. To use one of these commands, the user simply sends an email to a command address. When an email reaches the mailbox corresponding to that address, the list management software automatically responds to the email. Email address commands typically include commands that allow users to subscribe or unsubscribe, to get list help or to view raw archives. For more information, see Email Commands in the Kavi Mailing List Manager help.

email archives

A collection of email messages stored on a server. A mailing list may have raw archives accessible via ezmlm email address commands, and may also have web-viewable, indexed archives supported by the MHonArc archiving tool.

See Also EZ Mailing List Manager, MHonArc.

email template

Email templates are preconfigured email messages about a certain kind of object (e.g., company, user, a membership, etc.) and an event that can happen to that type of object (e.g., added, activated, edited, etc.). They include default values for the Recipient and From address fields, the Subject and message body. The subject line and message body can contain static text plus email template variables, which are replaced by real-time data from the database or application when the email is generated. The Email Scheduler generates and sends the message when the event occurs, such as the New User Signup Email template that is used to generate a scheduled email whenever a user is added.

See Also scheduled email, email template variable.

email template variable

Email templates contain variables that are replaced by real-time data from the database or application whenever an email is generated from the template. For example, the New User Signup Email includes the '$u_fullname' variable that is populated from user name fields in the database when an email is generated, and the '$u_change_password_link' variable that is replaced by a Kavi Members login link. When a new user named Fringed Myotis is added, the template is sent out with the variable '$u_fullname' replaced by 'Fringed Myotis' and the '$u_change_password_link' variable replaced with a login link that Fringed Myotis can click to login to his personal account.

See Also scheduled email.

email schedule

Kavi applications provide robust email tools, including the Manage Email Schedule tool, which is used to manage all automated email notifications (called "scheduled email") sent through that application. A scheduled email is generated automatically from a preconfigured email template when a certain kind of event occurs in that application. As an example, Kavi Members has a default scheduled email that sends an email template containing a login link when a new user is added to the Kavi Members database.

The term email schedule refers collectively to all scheduled email for a particular application. The email schedule is based on events in the application workflow that affect objects managed through that application. Kavi Members email schedule tends to include templates sent out when a user or company is added or edited, when a membership is approved or expires, etc.

See Also email template, scheduled email.


A method of protecting sensitive information by scrambling the data to be sent over the Internet in a code that is not human-readable. Encryption is used throughout Kavi software. Credit card information is always encrypted and website passwords can also be encrypted.

envelope header

An email envelope header contains information similar to that printed on a real-world envelope you would use to send hardcopy mail via the postal service. Unlike the email message header (which contains the familiar fields 'To', 'From', 'Date' and 'Subject'), the envelope header is normally hidden when viewing email through an MUA. Envelope header fields include 'Return-Path', 'Reply-To', timestamps and other information added by mail servers during each leg of the email transfer process. Together, the message header and envelope header are referred to as the full header of an email.

When there is a problem with an email, the complete email including the full header must be attached and sent to support so that information in the envelope header is available for troubleshooting. The envelope header shows the route that the email took from its originating sender through each hop on the route and the length of time it took to make each hop. For information on capturing the full header, see Accessing the Full Header for Email Troubleshooting.

See Also envelope sender, full header, email header, message header, mail user agent.

envelope sender

The envelope sender is the most reliable indentifier of "who" sent an email (i.e., the originating sender). The envelope sender address is extracted from the Return-Path field of the email message's envelope header. Amont other information, the Return-Path includes the fully qualified domain name (or IP address) of the MUA from which the email originated and the username of the originating sender, so the envelope sender can be identified as a username at a specific domain. Since Return-Path information is set automatically by receiving mail hosts during the email transfer process, it is more reliable than the 'From' or 'Reply-To' fields, which can be set by the user.

See Also envelope header, mail user agent, Return-Path.


Spreadsheet program for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh; part of the Microsoft Office Suite. CSV reports and data files can be viewed and manipulated in Excel and other spreadsheet applications.

See Also comma-separated values.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

XML is a markup language used to describe document content and structure, rather than the presentation of the content. It is called "extensible" because it is specifically designed to be extended for flexibility and adaptability for different uses. XML is a meta language—a language for describing other languages—which lets developers create customized markup languages for whatever type of document needed.

XHTML, a version of XML specifically used to code web pages is used to write Kavi software interfaces.

See Also Extensible HyperText Markup Language.

Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML)

XHTML is a standard that for creating HTML-based documents in an XML-compliant manner. By writing content for the Web in XHTML, Kavi is able to take advantage of XML tools that check the correctness of the code and assure the content's backward and forward compatibility.

For more information about XHTML, visit the XHTML web site.

See Also Hypertext Markup Language, Extensible Markup Language.

EZ Mailing List Manager (ezmlm)

A scalable, feature-rich mailing list management tool used by several Kavi applications that support mailing lists. Kavi Mailing List Manager provides a web-based interface for interacting with ezmlm mailing lists. Ezmlm integrates exceptionally well with qmail, an email management tool by the same author. Ezmlm-idx is an add-on that provides indexing for the MHonArc archives. For more information about ezmlm, visit

See Also mailing list, MHonArc, qmail.

ezmlm-make argument string

The ezmlm-make argument string contains configuration settings for a List Type on which Kavi Mailing List Manager mailing lists can be based. These arguments determine which list features are enabled and what kinds of controls are placed on email access to the list through messages sent for posting and ezmlm Email Commands. For more information on the meaning of specific arguments and combinations of arguments in the ezmlm-make argument string, see EZMLM Quick Reference in the Appendix of the Kavi Mailing List Manager help.

See Also List Type.


fail silently

The ability to post to a mailing list is often restricted depending on the sender's list user level, and email from addresses that are not on the list of those who are allowed to post may be rejected. When an email is rejected, the system deletes the email without notifying the sender or mailing list administrators, so the email is said to fail silently.


A harsh message, sometimes containing personal criticism, posted in reply to a message that the flamer considers to be off-topic or a violation of list netiquette. Ironically, most list moderators consider excessive flaming to be a violation of netiquette and may temporarily or indefinitely revoke the posting privileges of people who post flames.

See Also netiquette, newbie.


Antivirus software from Frisk Software International. For more information, visit the Frisk website.

full header, email header

A full header contains metadata about the email, similar to the information on a real-world envelope used to send hardcopy mail via the postal service. Full headers include both message headers and envelope headers. The message header is usually displayed when viewing an email, and contains familiar fields such as 'To:', 'From:', 'Date:' and 'Subject:' fields. Envelope header information is usually hidden by the MUA, and is visible only when viewing the email source or email properties. It includes fields such as the 'Return-Path', 'Reply-To', timestamps and other information added by mail servers during each leg of the transfer process. This information is used when troubleshooting email delivery issues.

When there is a problem with email, forward the complete email as an attachment so the full header will be available for troubleshooting. If you forward the email inline or copy the content into another email, you will only capture the message body and visible fields. The envelope headers (the information of most use in the troubleshooting process) will be omitted.

See Also envelope header, message header, mail user agent.

full-text search

Many software searches will search across a limited number of details, such as item names and state. In contrast, a full-text search looks through the entire contents of documents and email posted to a website, not just the document names or email subjects.

Full Log

A detailed log that stores all events that occur in a Kavi application. A certain degree of technical knowledge is required in order to interpret the Full Log.

Kavi applications frequently augment the Full Log with user-friendly Object Logs and Activity Histories.

See Also activity history, Object Log.

fully qualified domain name

The unique name by which host (i.e., server) is known on the Internet and can be resolved to an IP address. It consists of a domain name which is known to the Internet, including the top-level domain, and if there are multiple hosts within the network, it includes the name by which the host (server) is known locally. A domain name takes the general form 'domainname.tld' where 'domainname' is the domain and '.tld' is the top-level domain. If there are multiple hosts within the domain, the name will usually take the form 'servername.example.tld' where 'servername' is the name by which the host is known within the local network. For example, a company might use the domain name of '' for its headquarters while the research division, which is served by a different server (and therefore has a different IP address), might be known by the domain name of ''. Both of these would be fully qualified domain names.

When an email is transferred from the originating MTA to the first receiving MTA, the receiving MTA checks to see whether the hostname that has been provided to it by the originating MTA resolves to a unique Internet address. If it does, then it is a fully qualified domain name and the receiving MTA adds the hostname to the Return Path in the envelope header. If the hostname does not resolve properly, the receiving MTA adds the originating MTA's IP address instead. So, even if the person who originated the email falsified information in the 'From:' and 'Reply-to:' fields, the originating sender's true Internet address is recorded in the email's envelope header.

In Kavi documentation, the domain of an organization's website is represented generically in examples as '', while the domain of a company is represented as ''. The domain name is used by Internet email and Internet website addresses, so the email address of a user is represented as '' and the organization's website as ''.

See Also domain, domain name, mail transfer agent.



A software interface that allows a server to communicate with a data source. Kavi Commerce connects with payment gateways to make credit card authorization requests and receive authorization responses back from the Internet merchant account. Both ECHOnline and Verisign provide payment gateways. Also known as payment processing service.

See Also internet merchant account.

grace period

Period of time between a membership's expiration and the archiving of the membership. Consequences of allowing the membership to expire will be implemented at the end of the grace period unless the membership has been renewed.


Generic term used by Kavi Groups to describe the online collaboration center for a specific committee, working group, task force, or interest group. Each group is highly configurable, with a roster, action items, ballots, a document repository, and a mailing list with online email archives.



A computer connected to a network. A host might function as a mail server or webserver.


A name by which a computer is known on a network. The computer (i.e. host) may be known by more than one hostname within the local network, but it can only be registered in the Domain Name System under a single hostname, which is used for the local portion of the host's fully qualified domain name. For instance, the hostname of the mail server at a company's research division could be registered with the DNS as 'research', so that email addresses for the research division would take the form ''. Within the network, this same host could also be known as 'bob'.

On the Internet, the DNS can resolve the host's fully qualified domain name to an IP address, which allows users to send email to the host if it is a mail server or to visit a website if the host is a webserver.

See Also Domain Name System, fully qualified domain name, IP address, internet address.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

The most common markup language used in the creation of documents for the Web. HTML markup tells browsers how to display the content of each webpage.

See Also source, source code, Extensible HyperText Markup Language.



Status indicating a company or user account or membership is not current or in good standing. An inactive status typically indicates that the company or user no longer has full privileges nor is it visible. For instance, inactive users cannot into the website, but active users can, and inactive profiles are hidden in the showcase, whereas active profiles are featured publicly.

See Also active.


Calendar data standard. Kavi calendaring tools support the iCalendar standard (RFC 2445), so that calendar data can be exported and embedded in automatically generated email notifications and users can update their Apple iCal or other desktop calendar tool automatically.


Kavi Members term. This is a default Contact Type assigned to users in individual-based or mixed organizations whose purpose is 'Individual Member' or 'Individual Nonmember'. The term is also used generically to mean users with this purpose, as opposed to company representatives or staff.

See Also Company for Individuals, Contact Type, individual-based organization, Individual Member, Individual Nonmember, mixed organization, Purpose.

Individual Member

Kavi Members term. Purpose assigned to a user who has acquired a membership for individuals and enjoys membership privileges as defined by the organization bylaws. Individual Members have memberships with the organization that expire and must be renewed. Informally, refers generically to users with this purpose. This purpose applies in individual-based or mixed organizations. The term "individual member" is used generically to mean users with this purpose, as opposed to individual nonmembers, company representatives or staff.

See Also Company Representative, Company for Individuals, individual-based organization, Individual Nonmember, mixed organization, Purpose, Staff Person.

Individual Nonmember

Kavi Members term. Purpose assigned to a user who represents their own interests in the organization as opposed to representing a member company, but without benefit of formal membership. This Purpose is only available if Kavi Members is configured to track nonmembers and this is an individual-based or mixed organization. The term "individual nonmember" is used generically to mean users with this purpose, as opposed to individual members, company representatives or staff. Individual nonmembers are usually able to log into protected areas of the website to manage their own accounts, but don't enjoy all the privileges of full membership. Unlike individual members, their relationship with the organization doesn't expire.

See Also Company for Individuals, Contact Type, individual-based organization, Individual Member, Individual Nonmember, mixed organization, Purpose.

individual-based organization

This type of organization offers full memberships to individuals (people). It does not offer memberships to companies. Organizations that offer memberships to companies as well as individuals are classified as mixed organizations.

See Also company-based organization, mixed organization.

intellectual property

Intellectual property includes ideas, designs inventions, technology, software, etc. which are protected under intellectual property rights.

Interest Category

ANSI term, also used generally in standards organizations. Organization members and other participants in the standards development process can be assigned an Interest Category to classify their interest in the standard (e.g., Corporate, Trade Association, Government, Academic, etc.). Kavi ANSI SDO module tracks Interest Categories for organizations that want to demonstrate balance and openness in their standards development process in compliance with ANSI requirements for standards accreditation.

internet merchant account

An internet merchant account is a specialized bank account that allows credit cards to be processed online. Also known as a "Card Not Present Merchant Account."

internet service provider (ISP)

A company or organization that provides internet access. ISPs frequently provide mail handling services for users, in which case the ISP will have mail servers protected by virus scanning and spam filtering software, as well as a firewall. Although these protections are necessary, each is another possible point of failure in the email delivery process.

IP address, internet address

The IP (short for Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier for an internet host such as your computer or your email provider's mail server. The IP address is used when one computer sends information to another. When you send an email, the IP addresses of all the hosts that handle the email are recorded in the email header. IP addresses consist of a string of four numbers, separated by dots (period marks). Each number can be no more three digits. The IP address will look something like this: ''.

item key

Used to create a unique entry for each record in the database tables. item_key is frequently displayed on activity log reports when new information is added, which shows that a new and unique record has been created for that record.



Kavi is the industry leader in web-based management for technical standards organizations. We provide a suite of applications designed to allow organizations to manage the content of their website and securely collaborate online.

Kavi Billing

Kavi Billing works as part of a suite of website applications, providing bills and receipts for a variety of different tools. Kavi Billing consolidates the billing history for an account into a single place, and centralizes an organization's methodology for accepting payment, creating bill IDs and communicating with members about their payments.

Kavi Commerce

Kavi Commerce sends credit card payments from your web site to a payment processing service. Other products, such as Kavi Billing, make use of Kavi Commerce's forms for collecting credit card information and managing the status of credit card transactions.

Kavi Edit

Kavi Edit provides a convenient set of tools used to manage and edit site content. It features WYSIWYG and source editors, session locking, file downloads, image handling and a secure working environment that can be configured to set editing permissions at the page level. Dynamically generated navigation automatically inserts nav nodes as new pages are added and links to external sites can be created independently.

Kavi Groups

Kavi Groups is the collaborative cornerstone of many standards organizations. This unique collaboration application helps coordinate an organization's committee work by providing secure, online committee areas with tools and features designed specifically to support the committee processes necessary for standards development.

Kavi Groups incorporates tools for managing committee rosters, sharing and storing documents, shared calendars and scheduling events, conducting formal balloting, and archiving group email, with personalized RSS feeds designed to help participants keep seamlessly up-to-date.

Kavi Members

Kavi's membership management system is the core component of all of Kavi Web services packages. It serves as an organization's member database, controls access to private Web content, keeps track of members' roles and permissions, tracks expiration dates, simplifies and personalizes member communication, creates member directories and company rosters, and helps generate dynamic content for your website.

Kavi Showcase

Kavi Showcase gives standards organizations a browsable, searchable library of member profiles and a catalog of their standards-compliant products. Each member company can create and maintain its own profile complete with links to its website, a company description and company logo. Each profile can have one or more catalog items associated with it. Catalog items are also searchable and can include a product photo, description, links to product literature, and sales or marketing contact information.

Kavi Registration

Kavi Registration features a web-based interface to a full featured yet customizable event registration package. Registrants can be profiled with custom questions, and ecommerce used to collect credit card fees online. Kavi Registration imposes no limits on the number of attendees but allows custom limits and waiting lists to be set at the administrator's discretion. The administrator's interface provides online control of the event, including the ability to make modifications that become visible instantly and to monitor the results with real-time reporting.

Kavi WebApps

Kavi WebApps are semi-custom solutions designed for a specific site based on a robust set of software development tools. These solutions are database-backed and feature a full set of administrative tools for managing the database and generating reports.


A term used in a search. Kavi Showcase encourages the addition of keywords to profiles and catalog items to increase the chances that a search will find the object. The careful use of keywords in all website content is a critical part of search engine optimization, and one of the main strategies for improving a website's search engine ranking.


last login date

The last login date attribute is added during the user authentication process in Kavi Members. The last login date is stored in the user's record and every time the user is authenticated against the Kavi system, the last login date is updated appropriately.

last modified

The date and time that a record was last updated. The last modified date is tracked on all records and is available in most of the data downloads provided by Kavi software.

list administrator

List administrators maintain mailing lists and enforce list policies. Depending on the mailing list, their duties may include moderating messages for posting or moderating subscription requests. They have a higher level of permissions than regular users so they can fulfill these responsibilities.

list owner

A list owner maintains the technical environment in which the list is housed.

List Type

A preconfigured mailing list template on which Kavi Mailing List Manager mailing lists are based. List Type configuration depends on which arguments are set in the ezmlm-make argument string. These arguments determine which list features are enabled and what kinds of controls are placed on email access to the list through messages sent for posting and ezmlm Email Commands. For more information, see the Concepts document on List Types in the Kavi Mailing List Manager help.

See Also ezmlm-make argument string.

login key, login link

A link sent by email which can then be used to identify the recipient to the website. The link includes a unique key, a long string of randomly generated numbers and letters. When the user clicks this link, the user is automatically logged in so they can access their password and other personal information. Login links are sent to new members, to users who have forgotten their passwords and to members who need to renew their membership but can no longer access the restricted areas of the site.


A recorded history of changes made to the data, including the date of the change and who made the change. The full logs show which fields were changed and the values of those fields, tying records back to their unique database IDs. The activity histories are a human-readable variation of this information, including notes about the change rather than the detailed field values.

See Also activity history.


mail delivery agent (MDA)

A generic term for email delivery applications that manage mail delivery between mail transfer agents (MTAs) such as qmail and mail user agents (MUAs) such as Emacs or Microsoft Outlook. MDAs generally operate behind a firewall, so if an email delivery has failed and Kavi has been able to confirm delivery to the MTA, the failure point can only be identified by admins responsible for the network protected by this firewall.

See Also mail transfer agent, mail user agent.

mailing list

In its most basic form, a mailing list is a collection of email addresses, known as list subscribers. When an authorized email is sent to the list, it gets sent to every subscriber on the list. Mailing lists are frequently used as a method of discussion on a particular topic, such as marketing or compliance.

Mailing lists may offer archives, digests and a set of email commands that can be used by subscribers, moderators and administrators. Mailing lists are highly configurable so that the organization sponsoring the list can determine who can subscribe, who can post, whether the list is moderated and set parameters for what kinds of email the list will accept.

Kavi Mailing List Manager includes tools for creating and managing mailing lists. Kavi Groups also heavily uses mailing lists to facilitate communication between group participants.

mail transfer agent (MTA)

A generic term for email transfer applications, such as qmail, sendmail, postfix, etc. When tracking the delivery status of an email, it is only possible for Kavi to confirm delivery or failure between the sender and the receiver's MTA. Beyond this point, the mail enters the receiver's network and delivery can only be confirmed by admins responsible for that network.

See Also mail delivery agent, mail user agent.

mail user agent (MUA)

A generic term for email client applications, such as Emacs, Microsoft Outlook, etc.

See Also mail transfer agent, mail delivery agent.


A generic term for malicious software distributed via email such as viruses, worms, trojans and hoaxes.

See Also virus.


Kavi Groups and Zope term. A user with special responsibilities and privileges.

  • Kavi Groups managers work in tandem with group chairs to manage the resources of a specific group.

  • Zope managers have access to the underlying website application framework and to the configuration interfaces for all of Kavi's Zope-based software.

See Also Zope.

manual processing mode

Kavi Commerce term. Manual processing is the opposite of automatic processing. When Kavi Commerce is using Echo or Verisign payment gateways, credit cards are charged in real-time. When Kavi Commerce is in manual processing mode, credit card information is stored, rather than charged in real-time. These stored credit card transactions must later be manually processed by an administrator using an alternate credit card processing service.

Member Company

Kavi Members term. Purpose assigned to companies in the Kavi Members database that hold formal memberships, enjoy membership privileges as defined by the organization bylaws. Company Members have memberships with the organization that expire and must be renewed. Member Companies exercise their benefits through their Company Representatives. The 'Member Company' Purpose is only available if this is a company-based or mixed organization.

Informally, this term is used to refer generically to companies with this purpose, as opposed to member companies, staff companies or companies to which individual members belong.

See Also company-based organization, Nonmember Company, mixed organization, Purpose.


A member is a company or individual who holds a formal membership in the organization.

The member is assigned the Purpose of 'Individual Member' (if the organization offers memberships for individuals) or 'Member Company' (if the organization offers memberships for companies).

Membership privileges include access to protected Member Areas of the website and tools used to manage account information, groups signup, mailing list subscriptions, event registrations, profiles, etc. The 'member' role grants access to Member Areas.

Some organizations grant accounts and login privileges to nonmembers (i.e., users who have accounts but aren't full members of the organization). This includes organizations that don't offer formal membership (in which case nonmembers participate fully in the organization), but organizations that do offer formal memberships will grant nonmembers a lower level of permissions and benefits than those acquired by full members. Organizations may also make significant portions of their website content accessible to public users (users who aren't logged in).

See Also account holder, Individual Member, Member Area, Member Company, nonmember, public user, role.

Member Area

Most Kavi applications include an access-protected Member Area that provides tools that account holders can use to manage account information, groups signup, mailing list subscriptions, event registrations, profiles, etc. The plural version of this term, Member Areas, refers to all of these areas collectively. These areas aren't necessarily restricted to Individual Members—they may also be used by any account holder, including member company representatives, nonmembers and staff, depending on the organization.

If the organization's site is configured to allow nonmembers to hold accounts, nonmember account holders and representatives of nonmember companies may login to Member Areas to access the tools they need to manage their accounts, but usually have more restricted access to groups and website content than full members.

Access to Member Areas is provided through the 'member' role.

Some organizations make significant portions of their website content accessible through Public Areas that can be accessed without logging in.

See Also account holder, member, nonmember, role.

Members Mailing Lists

Kavi Members and KMLM term. A Members Mailing List uses a configurable query to populate the Regular and Poster Subscriber Lists, then maintains the lists dynamically so they are always in sync with the Kavi Members database. For more information, see the Kavi Mailing List Manager Concepts document Members Mailing Lists.


Kavi Members term. Membership levels are typically defined in the organization bylaws and guided by policies defining eligibility, pricing structure and benefits. An organization may offer memberships for companies, individuals or both. Each Membership Type has its own eligibility requirements, benefits and duration. Many organizations have membership levels, so that a higher level of investment is associated with a concomitantly higher level of benefits. Other organizations have flatter membership structures based on participant types or sectors.

Memberships have:

  • Terms or Durations (e.g., 1 year, lifetime)

  • Benefits (e.g., participation, publications, marketing exposure)

  • Obligations (e.g., fees, contribution activities and deliverables)

  • State (e.g., 'Pending', 'Current', 'Expired', etc.)

  • Eligibility requirements (e.g., market sector, size, many other kinds of criteria)

See Also company-based organization, individual-based organization, mixed organization.

membership history

Kavi Members term. The membership history consists of the series of successive memberships held by a particular member. The data in the membership history includes the types of all past, current and pending memberships, the membership term and which membership each of these was renewed with. It also includes those that were replaced mid-term (usually because the membership was upgraded or downgraded to a different type of membership), but not those memberships that were deleted. Past memberships may be in the 'Archived' or 'Expired' state. Memberships that are not yet 'Current' are in a pending state, such as 'Pending Start Date'.

See Also membership.

Membership Type

Kavi Members term. Users or companies can apply to become a member of an organization using a selected membership type. The configuration of the membership type determines the term of the membership, its price, and the website privileges to be automatically granted through that membership.

See Also member.

message header

An email header contains information similar to the information on a real-world envelope you would use to send hardcopy mail via the postal service. The full header consists of the message header, which contains the familiar 'To', 'From', 'Date' and 'Subject' fields, and the envelope header, which is generally hidden when viewing email through an MUA.

When an email delivery problem occurs, the complete email, including the full header, must be forwarded to support as an attachment. When the email is forwarded inline or the contents are copied into another email, only the message body and message header are captured and the all-important envelope header infomation (which is of most use in the troubleshooting process) is omitted.

See Also mail user agent, full header, email header, envelope header.


MHonArc is the mail-to-HTML converter used by Kavi software to create web-viewable email archives. For more information, visit the MHonArc website.

mixed organization

Kavi Members term. An organization that offers both company and individual memberships. This type of organization has company representatives as well as individual members in its user database. It may be configured to support inclusion of nonmember individuals and companies.

See Also company-based organization, individual-based organization.


Moderation interjects human decision-making into automated processes at strategic points in the workflow so the organization and its members can benefit from having important decisions made by a human with advanced reasoning faculties and discernment rather than a computer implementing one-size-fits-all logic. The moderator reviews certain kinds of requests submitted to the organization, then approves or rejects the request based on established guidelines. In Kavi applications, moderation processes are conducted through email as well as web-based forms and tools.

Moderation steps are built into the workflow of many Kavi applications, including Kavi Members, Kavi Groups, Kavi Showcase and Kavi Mailing List Manager. Moderation steps are generally configurable, so organizations that prefer to rely on automated processes to handle a certain kind of task can leave moderation turned off, while those that prefer to put the decision in the hands of a moderator can enable that particular moderation step. For example, Kavi Members can be configured to enable moderation for Company Membership Applications, but disable moderation for Company Representative Signup, relying on accepted domains enforcement to screen these users.

See Also accepted domains, moderator.

moderation queue

A moderation queue is a series of moderation requests awaiting moderator review and action. Your organization's website may have multiple moderation queues. For instance, Kavi Members may have an Individual Membership Application queue, a Company Membership Application queue and a Company Representative Signup queue. In Kavi Members, these queues receive requests in the form of applications. When a new application is received, a Scheduled Email is sent to designated moderators. When a moderator acts on the request by approving or rejecting the application, the application is removed from the queue.

See Also moderation, moderator.


A moderator is a person who handles decision-making at strategic points in otherwise automated processes so the organization and its members can benefit from having important decisions made by a human with advanced reasoning faculties and discernment rather than a computer implementing one-size-fits-all brute-force logic. The moderator reviews certain kinds of requests submitted to the organization and approves or rejects the request based on established guidelines.

Most Kavi applications configuration options include moderation steps at multiple places in the workflow. In Kavi Members, moderators may review membership and company representative applications to provide human oversight of the application process and control who is granted access to protected areas of the organization's Web site. Kavi Showcase has moderators review and approve member profiles and catalog items before they are published. In Kavi Mailing List Manager, moderators help ensure that unwanted messages aren't posted to mailing lists and may handle subscription requests to private lists.

Moderators usually handle specific kinds of requests, so moderation responsibilities are usually divided between multiple moderators. For instance, new memberships may require approval by the Board of Trustees, with an administrator entering the results into the system. On the other hand, designated personnel within the Marketing Department may moderate profile approval requests generated through Kavi Showcase.

Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME type)

All files have a MIME Type which describes what kind of data the file contains and in which format this data is stored. Originally used as a method to tell email programs what types of files were being sent, MIME Types are now recognized by internet browsers and other software. The MIME type enables applications to read the file. For example, your browser will detect the image/jpeg MIME type as a JPEG picture and display it properly.


Kavi software is backed by MySQL databases. MySQL is the world's most popular Open Source Database, designed for speed, power and precision in mission critical, heavy load use. For more information about MySQL, visit the MySQL website.


nav nodes, navigation nodes

Kavi Edit features dynamically generated navigation, which creates navigation links using information aggregated from navigation nodes, or nav nodes, inserted throughout the site. Nav nodes are generated automatically when a new page is created. Links can be created independently by the user, including links to external websites in the site navigation. These nodes contain the navigation URL, the title to be used for the navigation, breadcrumbs, site map, and the order in which the node should be displayed.


A combination of the terms "net" and "etiquette". Netiquette is proper etiquette for the Internet.

network cloud

The set of all mail servers and connectors within a company or organization. When an email fails within the network cloud, only internal admins can determine the exact point of failure.


Non-pejorative slang term for an inexperienced user, especially a newcomer to a mailing list.


A magazine, frequently marketing-related. Newsletters can be distributed through a mailing list, and Kavi Mailing List Manager provides a 'Newsletter' default list type specifically for this use of a mailing list.


A nonmember is a company or individual with an account in the Kavi Members database who does NOT hold a formal membership in the organization. If the organization does offer formal memberships, nonmembers may not enjoy the same level of privileges as members, nor does their relationship with the organization expire on a certain date. If Kavi Members is configured to track nonmembers, nonmember companies and users are assigned a purpose of 'Nonmember Company' or 'Individual Nonmember' respectively. Users who belong to nonmember companies are assigned the 'Company Representative' purpose. The term 'nonmember' doesn't apply to staff.

Nonmembers and their representatives have Kavi Members accounts, can login and access protected Member Areas of the site and tools used to manage their account information, groups, mailing list subscriptions, event registrations, etc.

See Also account holder, Company Representative, Individual Member, Member Company.

Nonmember Company

Kavi Members term. Purpose assigned to companies in the Kavi Members database that lack formal memberships. The 'Nonmember Company' Purpose is only available if this is a company-based or mixed organization and Kavi Members is configured to track nonmembers. These companies don't enjoy the same privileges as member companies, nor does their relationship with the organization expire on a certain date. Informally, this term is used to refer generically to companies with this purpose, as opposed to member companies, staff companies or companies to which individual members belong.

See Also company-based organization, Member Company, mixed organization, Purpose.



Kavi Groups term. By default, a user added to a group roster as an Observer may download documents and read group email—but cannot add items, contribute to discussions or vote.

Object Log

A Kavi application log that stores all events that happen to a specific object (e.g., 'Company Log', 'User Log'). This log presents a condensed, friendlier version of the highly detailed and technical information stored in the Full Log.

See Also Full Log, activity history.

open subscription model

A mailing list that allows users to subscribe directly uses an open subscription model.

See Also closed subscription model.

order ID

Term used by Kavi Commerce. The order ID is a unique, human-readable identifier assigned to each credit card transaction by Kavi Commerce. If the transaction originated with another application, such as Kavi Billing, the order ID will match the bill ID of the bill to which this transaction relates.


The group or association to which the website belongs.


Indicates how a change recorded in an activity history was made. Some example originations include:


Changed by an automated tool, such as an automated email notice.


Added by a user via online tools.


Data added as a batch through use of an upload tool.

See Also activity history.



A secret combination of characters used to insure the security and privacy of your account. A good password will be at least six letters long, use both letters and numbers, and a combination of upper and lower case. It may also include special characters such as apostrophes, hyphens and underscores. The password should not be based on words found in a dictionary, even if you replace the 'O' with a '0' or the 'l' with a '1' (everybody knows this trick). The goal is to make it easy for you to remember and hard for others to guess.

payment method

Term used by Kavi Billing. The payment method for a bill describes how money will be received. Payments may be processed manually, as when receiving a check by mail, or automatically when paying by credit card. When a payment method for a bill is selected, the bill will show the appropriate instructions for remitting payment to the organization.

payment processing system

Kavi Commerce term. Another term for gateway.

See Also gateway.

pending company

A company in the process of applying for its first membership with the organization. Until the membership application process is complete, the company's information is stored in a database of pending companies. When the membership goes current, the company's information is moved into the regular company database and can be managed like any other company.

pending individual

An individual in the process of applying for their own membership with the organization for the first time. Until the membership application process is complete, the individual's information is stored in a database of pending users. When the membership goes current, the user's information is moved into the regular user database and can be managed like any other user.


PHP is a popular programming language that can be incorporated into HTML. For more information about PHP, visit the PHP web site.

PHP compression

A technique that minimizes the amount of time a webpage takes to download over a slow connection. Kavi Groups is designed to take advantage of PHP compression.

poster, Poster List

Kavi Groups term. The Poster Subscriber List stores secondary and alternate email addresses of users who are subscribed to receive group email under their primary addresses so that subscribers can post messages under these other addresses.

See Also Allow List, Allow Subscriber List.

purchase order number

The number on a purchase order, which is a document used to approve, track and process purchased items.

Primary Contact

A Kavi Members Contact Type assigned to a Company Representative to designate them as their company's principal liaison to the organization. Companies are usually asked to provide the name and email address of a Primary Contact as part of the membership application process so that the organization can communicate with the company via email. Important information about company memberships and benefits is routinely sent to Primary Contacts. Depending on the organization, Primary Contacts may be able to access Company Admin tools used to maintain their company's roster and data. The Primary Contact type isn't used by individual-based organizations.

See Also Company Representative, Contact Type.

primary email

The email address under which a user signs up. This is the email address to which automated notices will be sent and which is used to subscribed to mailing lists. For many organizations, this must be the user's official company-issued email address.

privacy policy

The organization's statement about how user information is gathered and used, what information is tracked, who has access to this information, and how a user can learn more. A thorough privacy policy is considered a requirement for any reputable website that tracks user information and should always be available on a website using Kavi Members.

private list

The opposite of a public list, a private list does not accept email address commands (administrative commands) from the public (i.e., from email addresses it can't find on the Subscriber List or other lists of known users).


An email sent automatically by a mailing list to check an email address that has been bouncing, or stopped accepting list email.

See Also bounce handling.


Term used by Kavi Showcase. A profile is a marketing description of a company or user, and may contain a description, URLs, and images. Each profile may be associated with several catalog items.

See Also catalog item.

progress bar

The table on the upper-right corner of software pages that shows how many steps are involved in the current process. The progress bar shows what step the user is currently on and how many steps remain before the process is complete.

public sender

Mailing list term. When a mailing list receives a message sent from an email address that isn't subscribed, it classifies the sender as a public sender. A message submitted for posting is only accepted if the mailing list is configured to accept public posts, and depending on posting rules, the message may be sent to a moderation queue.

public subscriber

Kavi Mailing List Manager term. An email address subscribed to a mailing list that isn't associated with a Kavi Member account holder is a public subscriber. This email address may belong to someone outside the organization who is interested in the work the organization is doing, or it may be an administrative email address or alias.

There is an important distinction between public subscriber and a public sender. The terms sound almost identical, but to the mailing list software, these are two entirely different kinds of senders. Any email address that is subscribed to receive mailing list messages (or is on the Poster or Allow Subscriber Lists) is classified as a subscriber by the software, so a mailing list handles a post from a public subscriber the same way that it handles posts from subscribed account holders. But the software classifies a sender using an unknown address as a public sender. Messages from public senders are only accepted by public mailing lists.

public user

A website user who isn't recognized by the system is classified as a public user. This includes people who don't have Kavi Members accounts, account holders who aren't logged in and users interacting with mailing lists through unknown email addresses.

Public users don't enjoy the same level of access privileges as account holders. Public users can only access the Public Area of the site and can only send messages to mailing lists that accept public posts. If a subscriber wants to be able to post to the list, they may have to send the message from the email account under which they are subscribed. An account holder may login and add update their email address or subscribe to the list before they can enjoy subscriber-level or member-level posting privileges.


Term used by Kavi Members. Each user and company in the database is assigned a Purpose to classify the user or company in relation to the organization at the most basic level. Kavi Members uses the Purpose field to make a wide array of decisions about how a user or company is managed: whether they are listed in member rosters and directories, what information is tracked in the database and what kinds of permissions to apply.

Purposes for companies are: 'Member Company', 'Nonmember Company', 'Staff Company' and 'Company for Individuals'.

Purposes for users are: 'Individual Member', 'Individual Nonmember', 'Company Representative' and 'Staff Person'.

These terms are also used informally to describe the different kinds of companies and users that may be associated with an organization.

See Also Member Company, Nonmember Company, Staff Company, Company for Individuals, Individual Member, Individual Nonmember, Company Representative, Staff Person.


Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language. For more information, visit the python web site.



qmail is an open-source SMTP server used by Kavi software. For more information about qmail, visit the qmail web site.


The minimum number of members required for the conduct of business. Kavi Groups includes features for tracking meeting attendance which can automatically compute whether quorum was met at a group's meeting.


raw archives

Mailing list email archives that live on the server's file system, as opposed to the web-viewable archives presented online by Kavi Mailing List Manager and Kavi Groups. Raw archives can often be retrieved using ezmlm commands sent by email to the mailing list.

See Also mailing list, MHonArc.

Really Simply Syndication (RSS)

RSS is a form of XML that publishes a list of headlines, article titles or events encoded in a way that can be easily read by another program called a news aggregator or news reader. These programs allow users to read headlines or events from dozens or hundreds of aggregated news sites at one time.

Kavi Groups sends out updates in RSS format, called RSS feeds, which keep members up-to-date when resources are published.

regular subscriber

Regular subscribers receive every email sent to the list singly, as opposed to digest subscribers who receive email in batches (many email rolled into one). Users have the ability to select from these two options when managing their subscriptions.

See Also Digest Subscriber.


Term used by Kavi Members. Any member who has at one time held an active membership with the organization can renew their membership by applying for a new membership. Members may renew their membership at any level allowed by the organization; an adopter membership that is upgraded to a board membership is still considered to have been renewed.


A field in an email header that provides the address to which replies to the message will go. It is analagous to the return address on a hardcopy letter you'd send through the postal service. Like the return address, this field can be set by the sender, so it is not necessarily valid but if it isn't, email returned to the sender will be undeliverable.

The contents of the 'Reply-To' field are not necessarily the same as the 'From:' field, which is also set by the sender, and the 'Return-Path', which is set by the originating MTA, and contains the address where the email originated.

Mailing lists set the 'Reply-To' field to the address of an automated bounce handler so that when an email sent to a subscriber bounces, it won't be returned to the list and distributed to all the other list subscribers.

See Also envelope header, mail transfer agent, Return-Path.


A field in an email envelope header that stores the fully qualified domain name (or IP address) of the MUA from which the email originated and frequently includes the sender's username. Since Return-Path is added automatically by receiving mail hosts, it more reliably identifies the actual originating sender, since the 'From' and 'Reply-To' fields can be set by the user. It also shows the path that the email took from host-to-host, including a timestamp for each transfer, so it provides information that is useful in troubleshooting email delivery issues.

See Also envelope header, envelope sender, Reply-To, mail user agent.


Underlying mechanism governing user access to website pages. Access to a page is controlled by the roles assigned to it. A user must have one or more of these roles in their role cache in order to access the page. The default role for a user is 'authenticated', meaning the user has basic access permissions that allow the user to login and gain access to the protected areas of the site. A more privileged type of user such as the Organization Admin would have the role of 'organization_admin' in their role cache, granting this user the ability to access tools and information available through the Admin Home page.

See Also role cache.

role cache

All roles assigned to a user are stored in this cache, which cumulatively represents this user's level of site access.

See Also role.

rolling year

Membership term. Rolling year memberships have a Fixed Duration of one year, with the start date of the membership term set to whatever date the membership became current, and the end date set for one year from the start date. So membership terms in an organization with rolling year memberships can start on any date, as opposed to an organization with Annual Fixed Term or fixed dates memberships, where all full-term memberships would start and end on the same date each year. New rolling year memberships don't have to be pro-rated and unless membership type fees or rules change, the organization can use the same membership type indefinitely. Rolling year memberships lend themselves well to auto-renewal.

See Also auto-renewal, duration, term, membership term.


scheduled email

Kavi applications term. A scheduled email is an email generated automatically from a preconfigured email template when a certain kind of event occurs. Each application provides its own default email schedule and email templates, but the template and schedule are configurable and are customized for each organization.

As an example, Kavi Members has a default scheduled email that sends an email template containing a login link when a new user is added to the Kavi Members database. An organization's scheduled email might include membership notifications, ballot reminders, invoices and payment confirmations.

Collectively, all scheduled email managed through an application is known as the email schedule.

See Also email schedule, email template.


A script or automated tool that searches website pages for email addresses, which it copies and saves. Scrapers are one way that spammers gather email addresses, so Kavi applications are designed to protect email addresses from scrapers wherever possible.

search engine

Software that searches documents for keywords entered by a user and returns a list of the documents or web pages containing the keywords. The most popular search engine website is Google.

search engine optimization (SEO)

The practice of crafting website content to maximize the web site's search engine ranking for specific keywords.

security certificate

Security certificates are necessary to establish a secure connection using the SSL protocol. Security certificates contain information about the certificate's owner, who issued the certificate, a unique identification number, and an encrypted key that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate. Security certificates are usually purchased from a third-party supplier and are typically valid from one to five years.

See Also secure socket layer encryption.


Email and mailing list management software identifies the "sender" of an email by extracting the sender's email address from the Return-Path in the email envelope header.

See Also envelope header, Return-Path.


Kavi Edit term. All changes made using Kavi Edit are made within a session. A session holds edits separate from the existing site until the editor is satisfied with the changes. Sessions do not end when the browser is closed, allowing the editor to continue work over several days without worrying about losing changes or exposing work prematurely.

A session ends when the editor who made the changes accepts or discards the edits.


Kavi Groups term. The sharing settings for a group determine where and to whom the group's resources will be published. Groups can be configured to publish, or share, items with other groups, the organization membership, and/or with the public at large.

site error

A site error occurs when an application form or dynamic webpage encounters problems. Site errors require attention by support staff, and can frequently trigger email alerting support staff to the problem. If you are reporting a site error, it is helpful to look at the page source and include the traceback, or error details, in your message.

See Also source, source code, traceback.

source, source code

Programming term used to describe the code files that control how pages are laid out and how applications work. When troubleshooting website problems, you may be asked to "View the source" which refers to the HTML source of the webpage. If you encounter a site error, this page source may include traceback information that guides support personnel to the cause of the problem.

Kavi Edit includes a source editor that allows direct editing of webpage HTML in addition to a WYSIWYG editor.

See Also Kavi Edit, Hypertext Markup Language, site error, What You See Is What You Get.


Spam can be defined as unsolicited bulk email sent to promote products or services. Kavi encourages all list owners to take proactive measures to prevent spam from being distributed through their lists and to adopt a closed-loop, confirmed opt-in process to avoid having list messages potentially perceived as spam. It is recommended that list messages include trailer text with instructions on how to unsubscribe from the list.

Whether deliberate or inadvertant, the distribution of spam through mailing lists jeopardizes the reputation of the website and invites the risk of being blocklisted by Spamhaus or other anti-spam organizations. Once an domain has been blocklisted, the process of having it removed from the blocklist is problematic and time consuming.

See Also blocklist, closed-loop, confirmed opt-in, scraper.


Python software objects (i.e., DataSkins), that appear in the Kavi Members Full Activity Log as the entity that handled the data change. It is possible to search the Full Activity Log for actions taken by a specific specialist type. For instance, if you are searching for changes made to a company contact record, you could enter 'KCompanyContactDataSkin' in the 'What Action Was Taken' field.

secure socket layer encryption (SSL, SSL encryption)

A protocol that allows sensitive information to be securely exchanged on the internet through the use of encryption. SSL used in conjunction with HTTP is called HyperText Transmission Protocol, Secure (HTTPS). Kavi product pages using SSL to secure financial transactions will be indicated by URLs beginning with HTTPS rather than the usual HTTP.

See Also encryption.


Generic term for Staff Company or Staff Person. Staff are in charge of managing the website and carrying out the day-to-day tasks of the organization. Staff have extensive management responsibilities. Staff and administrators:

  • work for the organization

  • act at the request of the organization

  • typically do not have a voting say in policy decisions

  • Staff's relationship with the organization is not subject to periodic expiration dates like that of membership holders.

See Also Staff Company, Staff Person.

Staff Company

Kavi Members term. A Purpose assigned to a company that provides services to the organization or that is used to group organization staff.

See Also Purpose, staff, Staff Person.

Staff Person

Kavi Members term. User Purpose assigned to a person who belongs to a staff company and helps manage the organization or the organization's website (e.g., is organization staff, works for a management company, marketing company, etc.).

See Also Purpose, staff, Staff Company.

Standards Developing Organization (SDO)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) term. An organization whose purpose is the development of new accredited standards. SDOs seek accreditation of their standards from accreditation bodies such as ANSI, ETSI or ISO, etc.


Status indicates whether an object in the database is active or inactive. Database objects may include companies, users, memberships, profiles, catalog items, etc. Status tends to be based on workflow states, with objects often added in an inactive state, becoming active, then inactive again as they are archived. In Kavi Billing and Kavi Commerce status follows this pattern as a bill or a transaction progresses from new through canceled or complete.

See Also active, inactive.


A subdomain is based on the domain of a URL, with more specific address information prefixing the domain string, usually the name of a server used for a division of the company or organization. If the company domain is '', the subdomain for the research division might be ''.

See Also domain, domain name.

subject, subject line

The contents of the subject line of an email (i.e., the line headed by 'Subject:'). Spam filters will reject (delete) emails with empty subject lines. Some mailing lists automatically add a prefix to the contents of the subject line to identify the list before forwarding emails to subscribers. When composing an email to post to a mailing list, take the time to compose a meaningful subject line to help distinguish this message from other messages on similar subjects.


Kavi Groups term. The Submitter is the user who added an item to a group, such as a document or an event.


Technically, a subscriber is any email address on any one of a mailing list's Subscriber Lists. More commonly. this term refers to the owner of an email address that is subscribed to receive email messages distributed through a mailing list (i.e., Regular or Digest subscribers). An alias subscriber is any email address subscribed to an email alias.

See Also alias, Digest Subscriber, regular subscriber.

Subscriber List

Most mailing lists have multiple Subscriber Lists that the list consults to determine which email addresses it should send posts to (the Regular Subscriber List and Digest Subscriber Lists), which email addresses it should send moderation requests to (the Moderator Subscriber List), who it should accept posts from (this varies according to posting rules, but may include Regular, Digest, Moderator, Poster and Allow Subscriber Lists) and whose messages it should reject, even if this subscriber is on these other lists (the Deny Subscriber List). For more information see the Kavi Mailing List Manager Concepts document Subscription Types and Subscriber Lists.

Super Admin

Common technical term, also a formally defined Kavi Members User Type. A user who has been assigned the Super Admin type has access to the Super Admin Area for all Kavi products installed on the website and to the tools used to configure these products. Product configuration is one way of implementing the organization's business rules and policies. Super Admins also have access to the Admin Area and Reports Area and tools for all installed Kavi products.

See Also User Type.


template blast

An Organization Admin can use a tool such as Kavi Members Send Template Blast to Company Representatives or Send Template Blast to Users to send template-based emails to a select group of recipients, such as Primary Contacts. Email templates have preconfigured address, subject and message body fields that the administrator can edit before sending. Template variables are replaced by real-time data extracted from the user's or company's database records when the messages are sent out.

See Also email template, Primary Contact.

terms and conditions

Legally enforceable restrictions on website use. A form displaying terms and conditions is presented to users during the account signup process. The user must click the check box that indicates agreement with the terms and conditions to proceed with the signup process. If the user clicks the check box indicating a refusal to agree with the terms and conditions, the automated signup process is usually terminated immediately. Some organization's policies allow these users to be added manually by administrators.

text template

Text templates store blocks of text that can be automatically inserted into webpages or mailing list messages. Text is usually set by Super Admins during the configuration process.

term, membership term

Kavi Members term. A membership term is defined as a date range between a specified start date and end date. The end date is undefined for lifetime memberships.

The span of time that a membership type will be in effect can be based on a term with set dates, or a duration (e.g., one year, a lifetime). Membership duration and term are interrelated, but not interchangeable. As an example, a fixed-term membership type with a start of January 1st and an end date of December 31st might appear equivalent to a membership type with a one year duration. In fact, if the fixed-term membership is acquired by January 1st, the duration of the membership will be one year. But if the fixed-term membership is acquired mid-term, say June 1st, the start date will be June 1st but the membership will still end on December 31st. This membership will only have a seven-month duration.

Conversely, in memberships with a one-year duration the start date and end dates fluxuate while the duration remains fixed. A member who acquires membership on January 1st will have a start date of January 1st and an end date of December 31st (some organizations prefer to have the end date be the same as the start date, e.g., January 1st 2007 to January 1st 2008). A member who acquires membership on June 1st will have a start date of June 1st and an end date of May 31st of the following year.

See Also duration.


A thread is created when a message posted to a mailing list is responded to with a second message on the same subject. Any number of other messages may be added to this thread, and the thread consists of all the messages posted on this subject. Kavi mailing list archives can be indexed by thread.

See Also email archives.

third-party software

Kavi installs and supports third-party software on many websites. Third-party software is developed by other companies or developer communities. Most third-party software used on Kavi sites is open source.


For efficiency's sake, computer systems can be configured to enforce a limit on the length of time that something can remain active or present in the system. Most users are familiar with the browser timeout phenomenon that sometimes occurs when downloading a large file. Kavi Mailing List Manager enforces a timeout on the length of time that a message can remain in a mailing list moderation queue without being moderated. When the timeout limit is reached, the message is deleted from the moderation queue and the sender is notified that their message timed out.


An automatically added time value indicating the time that a an event occurred. Timestamp values may record real time (usually on a 24-hour clock), in which case the value frequently includes the date as well as the time; or elapsed time, in which case there will be a pair of values, with the first set to a zero value and the second recording the elapsed time, as with a stopwatch. Since system clocks are set locally, there is variation in the way that systems are calibrated, so the timestamps on emails, which are timestamped by multiple hosts during the email transfer and delivery process, are only somewhat reliable.

top-level domain

Appears as the final extension of a domain name, taking the format domainname.tld, where .tld stands for top-level domains such as .org, .com, .edu. There are thirteen of these domains, each of which has a single root nameserver that fields all Domain Name System (DNS) requests for that specific top-level domain. The root nameserver responds to the DNS request with a list of nameservers that handle requests for the domain name.

See Also Domain Name System.


A traceback is a description of an application or dynamic page error that provides valuable debugging information for support staff. Tracebacks are hidden in the HTML source of all site errors, and can be seen by viewing the page source of the error page.

See Also site error, source, source code.


Kavi Commerce term. A transaction consists of the complete series of calls made between the organization's website and the bank when a credit card payment is made.



UTF-8, or Unicode (or UCS) Transformation Format, 8-bit encoding form, is used to encode international information for use on computer systems such as Unix and Linux. Kavi Groups optionally supports UTF-8 encoding on email messages, allowing email including Japanese and other international characters to be displayed correctly in the online email archives.


A person with a Kavi Members account. Most account holders have website access, although users who have been deactivated or have had types (and roles and access) removed due to membership expiration do not.

User Type

Used in Kavi Members and other Kavi applications to classify users and implement business logic. Some User Types convey website access privileges, particularly those assigned to individual members and nonmembers to provide access to Member Area tools, and those assigned to staff, which tend to convey access to Admin Area or Super Admin Area tools. Default User Types are 'Organization Admin', 'Organization Editor' and 'Report Admin', all of which are highly privileged types assigned to staff.

See Also role.


A unique combination of letters, numbers, and characters used when logging in to the restricted areas of a website.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

An internet address (e.g.,



The process of checking information entered into a webform to see if it fits a predefined set of criteria. All input is thoroughly validated before it is stored in the database. Bounds on all values are checked and error conditions are raised if not in compliance (invalid form values, user modified GET strings, stale pages).


A software program or piece of code loaded and run on a computer without the owner's approval. Most viruses can replicate and spread to other computers, primarily by hijacking email systems and sending themselves to other people in the address book. All computer viruses are manmade.

Kavi supports the use of F-Prot virus-blocking on incoming email sent to lists and aliases. Even with anti-virus software in place, it is best to be cautious about opening email attachments as they may contain a new virus not yet recognized by anti-virus software. If you weren't expecting to receive the attachment, do not open it until you have checked with the sender. If you do not know the sender, delete the email without opening the attachement.

See Also F-Prot.


Web standards

Web standards technologies establish a foundation upon which Web developers can create websites that are accessible to as wide an audience as possible. Web standards are also crafted to ensure that Web-based content written using standards today will still be viable in the future. Web standards are drafted and maintained by independent organizations, such as the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and include technologies such as CSS, XHTML, and DOM.

See Also Cascading Style Sheet, Extensible HyperText Markup Language.


Workflow is a software representation of a business process, describing how tasks are done, by whom, in what order and how quickly. A software workflow system can help automate all or part of the process it describes.

For example, most organizations have a series of steps a membership applicant must complete before they are granted membership, such as paying membership fees and signing the organization's IPR agreement. The order and number of these steps is configured into the website software's workflow, which will then automatically prompt the applicant to download forms or pay their bill at the appropriate point in the process.

Many of Kavi's software applications are workflow-driven. Kavi Members workflow can be customized to control how memberships are processed and maintained. Kavi Showcase's customizable workflow allows the organization to subject profiles to moderator approval before display or, if Kavi Compliance is enabled, gate display of catalog items on whether they pass compliance testing.

What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG)

Editing tools that display the page being edited exactly as it will appear when published.

Kavi Edit includes a WYSIWYG editor for editing page content in addition to a standard HTML editor.

See Also Kavi Edit, source, source code.



Zope is the open source application server for creating content management systems, intranets, portals, and custom applications upon which Kavi websites are built. For more information, visit the Zope website.