Energy markets have been characterized by poor coordination of supply and demand. This failing has exacerbated the problems caused by rising energy demand. In particular, poor communications concerning times of peak use cause economic loss to energy suppliers and consumers. There are today a limited number of high demand periods (roughly ten days a year, and only a portion of those days) when the failure to manage peak demand causes immense costs to the provider of energy; and, if the demand cannot be met, expensive degradations of service to the consumer of energy. As the proportion of alternative energies on the grid rises, and more energy comes from intermittent sources, the frequency and scale of these problems will increase. In addition, new electric loads such as electric vehicles will increase the need for electricity and with new load characteristics and timing.
Energy consumers can use a variety of technologies and strategies to shift energy use to times of lower demand and also to reduce use during peak periods. This shifting and reduction can reduce the need for new power plants, and transmission and distribution systems. These changes will reduce the overall costs of energy through greater economic efficiency. This process is called various names, including Demand Response (DR), demand shaping, and load shaping.
Distributed energy resources, including generation and storage, now challenge the traditional hierarchical relationship of supplier and consumer. Alternative and renewable energy sources may be placed closer to the end nodes of the grid. Wind and solar generation, as well as industrial co-generation, allow end nodes to sometimes be energy suppliers. Energy storage, for example mobile storage in plug- in hybrid vehicles, means that the same device may be sometimes a supplier, sometime a consumer. As these sources are all intermittent, they increase the challenge of coordinating supply and demand to maintain the reliability of the electric grid.
Better communication of energy prices addresses growing needs for lower-carbon, lower-energy buildings, net zero-energy systems, and supply-demand integration that take advantage of dynamic pricing. Local generation and local storage require that the consumer (in today's situation) make investments in technology and infrastructure including electric charging and thermal storage systems. Buildings and businesses and the power grid will benefit from automated and timely communication of energy pricing, capacity information, and other grid information.
Consistency of technology for interoperation and standardization of data communication can allow essentially the same model to work for homes, small businesses, commercial buildings, office parks, neighborhood grids, and industrial facilities, simplifying interoperation across the broad range of energy providers, distributors, and consumers, and reducing costs for implementation.
These communications will involve energy consumers, producers, transmission systems, and distribution systems. They must enable aggregation for production, consumption and curtailment resources. Market makers, such as Independent System Operators (ISOs), utilities, and other evolving mechanisms need to be supported so that interoperation can be maintained as the Smart Grid evolves. Beyond these interfaces, building and facility agents can make decisions on energy sale purchase and use that fit the goals and requirements of their home, business, or industrial facility.
The new symmetry of energy transactions demands symmetry of interface. A net consumer of energy may be a producer when the sun is shining, the wind is blowing, or a facility is producing co-generated energy. Each interface must support symmetry as well, with energy and economic transactions flowing each way.
In addition to architectural symmetry, this Technical Committee should create composed and composable specifications that leverage existing technologies (such as OASIS fine-grained web services security standards and reliable messaging standards) rather than reinventing. These specifications will define service interfaces and the data on which they operate to allow interoperation without requiring deep knowledge of the systems as they are implemented.
The Technical Committee will define the means of interaction between Smart Grids and their end nodes, including Smart Buildings and Facilities, Enterprises, Industry, Homes, and Vehicles. Dynamic pricing, reliability, and emergency signals must be communicated through interoperability mechanisms that meet business and energy needs, scale, use a variety of communication technologies, maintain security and privacy, and are reliable. We must try to define interoperability in a manner that will work with anticipated changes as well as those we cannot predict as technology changes.
This TC will leverage existing work wherever feasible, and will produce specifications for interoperation consistent with architectural principles including symmetry, composability, service orientation, usability and aggregation.
The TC will develop a data model and communication model to enable collaborative and transactive use of energy. Web services definitions, service definitions consistent with the OASIS SOA Reference Model, and XML vocabularies will be developed for interoperable and standard exchange of:
Dynamic price signals
Communication of market participation information such as bids
Load predictability and generation information
In addition to the protocol for exchanging information, optionally the TC may address:
Information and interfaces between the interoperation endpoints and the implementations at either end
This work will be done to facilitate enterprise interaction with energy markets, including but not limited to:
Response to emergency and reliability events
Take advantage of lower energy costs by deferring or accelerating usage
Enable trading of curtailment and generation
Support symmetry of interaction between providers and consumers of energy
Provide for aggregation of provision, curtailment, and use
The definition of a price and of reliability information depends on the market context in which it exists. It is not in scope for this TC to define specifications for markets or for price and bid communication, but the TC will coordinate with others to ensure that commonly used market and pricing models are supported.
List of Deliverables:
Projected times are from inception, the date of the initial TC meeting.
Insofar as possible the TC will coordinate its schedules with the UCA International Users Group (UCAiug) and other initiatives including those supported by NIST and regulatory agencies.
The terminology in this section is drawn from the OpenADR specification (Version 1.0). The simplified role names we use in this section are "consumer," the consumer of energy (also called the participant) and the "provider," the provider of energy (also called "utility" or "Independent System Operator [ISO]" or "aggregator"). These names are not definitive. The following may be bundled or unbundled as the TC work progresses.
Model and terminology: The terminology and model used to describe the interoperation protocol endpoints and message contents (3 months)
Consumer-Provider [Participant-Operator] Interoperation Specification: The messages and protocol addressing the functions and data model in the OpenADR Participant Operator Interface (6 months)
Demand Response Automation Server Interface Specification: The functions and data model entities for DRAS Client Interface to allow effective use of the Energy Interoperation protocols to retrieve and provide information to facilities' systems (9 months)
Utility, Independent System Operator or other transmission Operator, and Aggregator Interface Specification: Additional semantic models useful for functions within Participant Operator and/or DRAS Client Interfaces (see scope). (12 months).
Energy Interoperation Specification Version 1. (14 months).
After deliverable (5) is complete, the TC will enter "maintenance mode." The maintenance is intended to provide minor revisions to address inconsistencies and any necessary modifications in a way that does not affect core structure and functionality of the final deliverable. Such updates will take place at least annually.
The TC will also continue to address the interoperation as well as the bindings for communication within OpenADR specification from the connection point within the supply and demand-side, or between the utility or ISO and the facility.
The TC shall operate under RF on Limited Terms.
Anticipated users of this work include:
Implementers of facility agents, embedded communications clients in control systems, and gateways
Market makers and participants such as Independent System Operators
Aggregators of energy provision, curtailment, and use
Providers of energy and curtailment
Consumers of energy for acquiring energy in a cost-effective manner consistent with their business and/or personal activities
Operators of transmission, distribution, and utilities
The TC will use English as the language for conducting its operations.